Indo-Greek Kingdom, Menander I , c. 155 - 130 B.C.
Menander is the most important Greek who ruled in India and the only Greek mentioned in Indian literature. Tradition maintains he was a and powerful , who converted to Buddhism. This is further evidenced by his later coin legends which translate, "follower of the Dharma."WA79645. Silver , 879, 218c, 124, 16I, 193, -, gVF, attractive , , off center, light marks, 2.451 g, maximum 17.6 mm, 0o, Paropamisadai or Gandhara, uncertain mint, c. 155 - 130 B.C.; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ MENAN∆POY, draped right, wearing diadem and crested helmet ornamented with bull's horn and ear; : Menadrasa (of Great Menander the Savior), Alkidemos standing left, brandishing thunderbolt in right hand, on left arm, right; $160.00 (€142.40)
Indo-Greek Kingdom, Menander, c. 155 - 130 B.C.
Menander was in charge of the eastern Baktria, including modern and perhaps other regions deeper into Indian land. He expanded his influence further more into India where he is mentioned in several sources such as Milindanpanha and Mahavamsa, and an on a reliquary. The tradition maintains that he was a and powerful and that he converted to Buddhism. This is further evidenced by his later coin legends which translate to "follower of the Dharma."
Click here to see an Indian sculpture of a possible Greek .WA77216. Silver , 808, 290, 91, 13O, 215f, 191, gVF, dark , marks and scratches, , slightly off center, 2.390 g, maximum 17.5 mm, 0o, Paropamisadai or Gandhara, uncertain mint, c. 155 - 130 B.C.; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ MENAN∆POY, diademed and draped right; : maharaja tratasa Menadrasa (of Great Menander the Savior), Alkidemos standing left, brandishing thunderbolt in right hand, on left arm, lower right; $140.00 (€124.60)
Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos I Theos , c. 225 - 195 B.C.
Euthydemus was allegedly a native of Magnesia and a son of General Apollodotus. According to Polybius, Euthydemus was a of Sogdiana who ousted the dynasty of Diodotus from and made himself . His kingdom seems to have been substantial, including Sogdiana to the , and Margiana and Ariana to the south or east of . When Antiochus III the Great attacked in 208 B.C., Euthydemus lost the Battle of the Arius but then resisted a three-year siege in the fortified city of Bactra. Euthydemus negotiated peace asserting that he toppled the descendants of the rebel Diodotus and provided a barrier to barbarian invasions. Antiochus decided to recognize him as , and offered one of his daughters to Euthydemus' son Demetrius.AW73959. Bronze double unit, AK-1, series 17, 147, 87, 7523, 53 (R1), F, thick with beveled edge, corrosion, 7.245 g, maximum 23.4 mm, 45o, Ai Khanoum mint, c. 225 - 208/6 B.C.; bearded of Herakles right; horse prancing right, BAΣIΛEΩΣ above, EYΘY∆HMOY below; ; $120.00 (€106.80)
Kushan Empire, Kanishka I the Great, c. 127 - 150 A.D.
Kanishka I the Great ruled an empire in extending from Turfan in the Tarim Basin to Pataliputra on the Gangetic plain, c. 127 - 150 A.D., with his capital at Purusapura in Gandhara. He is famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. His conquests and patronage of Buddhism played an important role in the development of the Silk Road, and the transmission of Mahayana Buddhism from Gandhara across the Karakoram range to China. AW84802. Bronze , 768, 3077, 46, 68, aVF, thick , some, 17.632 g, maximum 24.8 mm, 315o, Purusapura(?) mint, c. 128 - 150 A.D.; Bactrian : PAO KA-NhPW ( Kanishka), standing half left, diademed left, sacrificing at at feet on left, long vertical in left hand; sun god Mithra standing left, around , raising right hand commanding , left hand on sword hilt at side, tamgha left, Bactrian : MIIRO curving downward on right; ; $80.00 (€71.20)
Indo-Scythian Kingdom, Azes II, c. 35 B.C. - 5 A.D.
Azes II may have been the last Indo-Scythian in the northern Indian subcontinent (modern day Pakistan). Indo-Scythian rule crumbled under the conquests of the Kushans who expanded into India to create the Kushan Empire. and Hoover now believe Azes II did not exist and attribute all Azes coins to Azes I or as imitative issues. A attributed to Azes I has been found on a coin traditionally attributed to Azes II, supporting their hypothesis. WA90095. Bronze hexachalkon, 102.193, 2386, 850f, 657, aVF, 12.825 g, maximum 29.4 mm, 135o, Taxila Sirsukh B(?) mint, c. 35 B.C. - 5 A.D.; BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MEΓAΛOY AZOY ( of Kings, Azes the Great), humped bull standing right, above, letter "jha" before forelegs; : Ayasa (great , of kings, Azes the Great), mane-less standing right, above; ex Ancient Imports; $70.00 (€62.30)
Indo-Scythian Kingdom, Azes II, c. 35 B.C. - c. 5 A.D.
Azes II may have been the last Indo-Scythian in the northern Indian subcontinent (modern day Pakistan). Indo-Scythian rule crumbled under the conquests of the Kushans who expanded into India to create the Kushan Empire. and Hoover now believe Azes II did not exist and attribute all Azes coins to Azes I or as imitative issues. A attributed to Azes I has been found on a coin traditionally attributed to Azes II, supporting their hypothesis.BB75464. Silver , cf. 105.223D, 222, cf. 859 (various controls), 655, gF, , , porous, 1.857 g, maximum 15.2 mm, 270o, (?) mint, BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MEΓAΛOY AZOY, on horseback riding right, whip in right hand, (control) right; : rajatirajasa Ayasa, Zeus standing left, extended in right hand, transverse in left hand, (control) left, B over letter Vi (control) right; $27.00 (€24.03)
Indo-Scythians, Kushanas Yuezhi in Hindu Kush and Gandhara, c. 55 - 45 B.C., Imitative of Hermaios
Hermaios, the last Indo-Greek , ruled in the Hindu-Kush region, from in Arachosia (Kandahar, Afganistan), c. 105 - 90 B.C. His prosperous rule ended when the Scythian Kushanas Yuezhi invaded from neighboring . With his defeat, the isolated of Greek domination in the east, which had lasted three centuries since the invasion of Alexander the Great, came to an end. The new rulers widely copied Hermaios coinage for many decades, in an increasingly debased and barbarized form.BB75430. Silver , 39aD.2/2q, series 19, III 420i, 307 (R1), aF, , , marks, corrosion, 1.647 g, maximum 15.9 mm, 0o, eastern Gandhara, uncertain mint, c. 55 - 45 B.C.; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ (clockwise above), EPMAIOY (counterclockwise below), diademed and draped of Hermaios right, flowing diadem ties, dotted hair; : Maharaajasa Heramayasa (of Great Hermaios the Savior), Zeus enthroned half left, chest bare, around hips and legs and over left shoulder, legs apart, right hand raised in , in left hand, left, Greek N(?) over letter To(?) right of throne; ; $21.00 (€18.69)
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