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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ The Secessionist Empires ▸ PostumusView Options:  |  |  |   

Gallic Empire, Postumus, Summer 260 - Spring 269 A.D.

Postumus was an incredibly skilled general and administrator. Rebelling against Gallienus, Postumus succeeded in uniting Gaul, Spain, and Britain into what was essentially an empire within an empire. Enjoying tremendous military success against the Germans, he kept his Gallic Empire secure and prosperous. In 268 A.D., he quickly destroyed the forces of the usurper Laelianus, but his refusal to allow his forces to sack Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany) led to his assassination by disgruntled troops.


Gallic Empire, Postumus, Summer 260 - Spring 269 A.D., Struck by Aureolus

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This coin was struck in the name of Postumus by Aureolus (one of the so-called Thirty Tyrants) while Gallienus held him under siege in Milan. Ancient sources which refer to Aureolus are limited and contradictory. He may have made his own bid for the Purple after Gallienus was murdered and Postumus failed to take advantage of the turmoil in Italy. The new emperor Claudius soon brought his rebellion to an end. This coin is dedicated to the goddess Fides for her good quality keeping the army true to its allegiance.
RA84412. Billon antoninianus, Schulzki AGK 18c, Cunetio 2479, Mairat 209, Elmer 612, Hunter IV 143, SRCV III 10938, RIC V-2 376 var., RSC IV 60 var., VF, attractive portrait, nice surfaces, tight flan cutting off parts of legends, weight 4.354 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Mediolanum (Milan) mint, 268 A.D.; obverse IMP C POSTVMVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse FIDES EQVIT (to the loyalty of the cavalry), Fides seated left, patera in right hand, signum vertical behind in left hand, P in exergue; $175.00 (€148.75)
 


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The Rhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier of the Roman Empire.
RA72656. Billon antoninianus, Cunetio 2371, RSC IV 355b, Schulzki AGK 88c, RIC V-2 87, SRCV III 10991, Elmer 123, Hunter IV - (p. lxxxviii), gVF, reverse scratches, weight 3.812 g, maximum diameter 24.5 mm, die axis 180o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 1st emission, 2nd phase, 260 - 261 A.D.; obverse IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS PROVINCIARVM (health of the provinces), river-god Rhenus (Rhine) reclining left, horned, nude to the waist, himation around hips and legs, resting right forearm on prow of a boat, reed cradled in left hand and arm, left elbow resting on urn behind; $120.00 (€102.00)
 


Gallic Empire, Postumus, Summer 260 - Spring 269 A.D.

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Ptolemy Soter wanted to integrate the Hellenistic and Egyptian religions by finding a deity that could win the reverence of both groups. The Greeks would not accept an animal-headed figure, so a Greek-style anthropomorphic statue was chosen as the idol, and proclaimed as the equivalent of the highly popular Apis. It was named Aser-hapi (i.e. Osiris-Apis), which became Serapis, and was said to be Osiris in full, rather than just his Ka (life force).
RS86380. Billon antoninianus, RSC IV 360a; Schulzki AGK 90; Hunter IV 92; RIC V-2 329; Cunetio 2437 (56 spec.); Elmer 383; SRCV III 10992, gVF, well centered and struck, luster in recesses, light toning, light marks, areas of slightest porosity, edge cracks, weight 2.714 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 0o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 267 A.D.; obverse IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SERAPI COMITI AVG (to Serapis companion of the Emperor), Serapis standing left, raising right hand, long transverse scepter in left hand; $95.00 (€80.75)
 


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The legends, denomination, and mint are uncertain. In Roman Coins and Their Values III, David Sear writes, "Many bronze coins showing a radiate portrait of Postumus may appear to be dupondii but are, in all probability, either last double sestertii of the secondary mint or simply contemporary imitations which were abundant in the early years of his reign."
RA85839. Orichalcum dupondius, cf. RIC V-2 233, Bastien Postume 356, SRCV III 11065 (double sestertius), Hunter IV 134 (same), VF, tight flan, reverse off center, weight 5.139 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 90o, unofficial or irregular mint(?) mint, obverse IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG (or similar), radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIA AVG (or similar), Victory advancing left, wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand, captive seated left at feet on left with hands bound behind, no S C across field or in exergue; ex Sayles and Lavender; $80.00 (€68.00)
 


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Deusoniensis probably refers to modern Deutz, on the Rhine across from Cologne. Apparently, Hercules was worshiped there and it has been suggested that Postumus was born in the town. From these relatively obscure provincial origins, Postumus would have risen through the ranks of the army until he held command of the Roman forces "among the Celts." What his precise title was is not definitely known, though he may have been promoted by Valerian to imperial legate of Lower Germany. Postumus was evidently in favor at Valerian's court, and may even have been granted an honorary consulship.
RS64647. Silver antoninianus, RSC IV 91a, RIC V-2 64, Mairat 13, Schulzki AGK 25, Elmer 124, Hunter IV 14, SRCV III 10944, aVF, toned, edge cracks, weight 3.271 g, maximum diameter 22.9 mm, die axis 180o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, c. 260 - 261 A.D.; obverse IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse HERC DEVSONIENSI (to Hercules of Deuson), Hercules standing slightly right, head right, nude, resting right hand on grounded club behind, bow in left hand, Nemean lion skin draped over his left arm; $70.00 (€59.50)
 


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Victory or Nike is seen with wings in most statues and paintings, with one of the most famous being the Winged Victory of Samothrace. Most other winged deities in the Greek pantheon had shed their wings by Classical times. Nike is the goddess of strength, speed, and victory. Nike was a very close acquaintance of Athena and is thought to have stood in Athena's outstretched hand in the statue of Athena located in the Parthenon. Victory or Nike is also one of the most commonly portrayed figures on Greek and Roman coins.
RS64649. Billon antoninianus, Schulzki AGK 9, Elmer 586, RIC V-2 287, RSC IV 31a, Mairat 168 - 171, Hunter IV 42, SRCV III 10932, Cunetio -, gVF, much silvering, edge cracks, weight 2.859 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 180o, Colonia Agrippina (Cologne) mint, 267 - 268 A.D.; obverse IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse COS IIII (consul for the 4th time), Victory standing right, raising wreath in right hand, long grounded palm frond in right hand before her; $50.00 (€42.50)
 


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Uberitas is the personification of fruitfulness, primarily agricultural fertility.
RS64676. Billon antoninianus, RSC IV 366a, RIC V-2 330, Mairat 136, Schulzki AGK 94, Hunter IV 93, SRCV III 10995, VF, well centered, toned, small edge cracks, weight 3.982 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 0o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, c. 267 A.D.; obverse IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VBERTAS AVG (to the abundance of the Emperor), Uberitas standing facing, head left, right leg forward, purse in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; $50.00 (€42.50)
 


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Although Ares was viewed by the Greeks primarily as destructive and destabilizing, worthy of contempt and revulsion, for the Romans, Mars was a father (pater) of the Roman people. He was the father of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. In early Rome, he was second in importance only to Jupiter, and the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Latin Martius), and in October, which began and ended the season for military campaigning and farming.
RS64642. Silver antoninianus, RIC V-2 57, RSC 273a, Schulzki AGK 64, Elmer 332, Cunetio 2406, Hunter IV 4, SRCV III 10974, VF, excellent centering, toned, nice style, slight porosity, edge cracks, weight 3.442 g, maximum diameter 21.618 mm, die axis 0o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 263 A.D.; obverse IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse P M TR P IIII COS III P P, Mars walking right, helmeted, nude but for cloak tied at waist and flying behind, spear transverse in right hand, trophy over left shoulder in left hand; $45.00 (€38.25)
 


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In 267 A.D., the Goths, originally from Scandinavia, along with the Sarmatians, originally from the area of modern Iran, first invaded the Empire. They ravaged Moesia, Thrace, the Balkans and Greece. In southern Greece, the cities they sacked included Athens, Corinth, Argos and Sparta. An Athenian militia force of 2,000 men, under the historian Dexippus, pushed the invaders north where they were intercepted by the Roman army under Gallienus. Gallienus defeated them near the Nestos River, on the boundary between Macedonia and Thrace.
RS64645. Billon antoninianus, RSC IV 331a, RIC V-2 325, Hunter IV 79, Elmer 593, Mairat 143, Schulzki AGK 77, Cunetio 2444, SRCV III 10983, VF, well centered, sightly porous, weight 4.506 g, maximum diameter 21.3 mm, die axis 0o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 266 - 267 A.D.; obverse IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right from the front; reverse SAECVLI FELICITAS (era of good fortune), Postumus standing right, bare-headed, wearing military attire, transverse spear in right hand, globe in extended left hand; $45.00 (€38.25)
 


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Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and god of the sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is, therefore, the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome.
RS64648. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 309, RSC IV 159a, Hunter IV 57, Cunetio 2449, Elmer 563, Mairat 149 - 153, Schulzki AGK 38a, SRCV III 10954, VF, well centered on a tight flan, toned, small edge crack, some porosity, weight 3.149 g, maximum diameter 20.9 mm, die axis 45o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 265 - 268 A.D.; obverse IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse IOVI STATORI (to Jove who upholds), Jupiter standing slightly left, nude, head right, long scepter in right hand, thunderbolt cradled in left arm; $45.00 (€38.25)
 




  



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OBVERSE LEGENDS

IMPCLATPOSTVMVSPFAVG
IMPCMCASLATPOSTVMVSAV
IMPCMCASLATPOSTVMVSAVG
IMPCMCASLATPOTVMVS
IMPCMCASSLATPOSTVMVSAV
IMPCMCASSLATPOSTVMVSAVG
IMPCMCASSLATPOSTVMVSPAVG
IMPCMCASSLATPOSTVMVSPIAVG
IMPCMCASSLATPOSTVMVSPFAVG
IMPCMCASSLATPOSTVMVSPIVSFAVG
IMPCPOSTVMVS
IMPCPOSTVMVSAVG
IMPCPOSTVMVSPAV
IMPCPOSTVMVSPIAVG
IMPCPOSTVMVSPFAVG
IMPCPOSTVMVSPFAVGCOSIII
IMPCPOSTVMVSPIVSFAVG
IMPCPOSTVMVSPIVSFELAVG
IMPPOSTVMVSAVG
IMPPOSTVMVSPFAVG
IMPPOSTVMVSPIVSAVG
IMPPOSTVMVSPIVSFAVG
MCASLATPOSTVMVSPFAVG
POSTVMVSAVG
POSTVMVSPFAVG
POSTVMVSPFAVGCOS
POSTVMVSPFAVGVSTVSTP
POSTVMVSPIVSAVG
POSTVMVSPIVSFELAVG
POSTVMVSPIVSFELIXAVG
VIRTVSPOSTVMIAVG


REFERENCES

Amandry, M. Trésors Monétaires, Vol. XIII: Recherches sur les monnayages d'imitation tardifs de Postume. (Paris, 1992).
Bastien, P. Le Monnayage de Bronze de Postume. (Wetteren, 1967).
Besly, E. & R. Bland. The Cunetio Treasure: Roman Coinage of the Third Century AD. (London, 1983).
Burnett, A. & R. Bland, eds. Coin Hoards from Roman Britain: The Normanby Hoard and Other Roman Coin Hoards. CHRB VIII. (London, 1988).
Calicó, X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. Two: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 6: Macrianus to Diocletian & Maximianus. (Paris, 1886).
De Witte, J. Recherches sur les empereurs qui ont régné dans les Gaules au IIIe siècle de l'ère chrétienne. (Lyon, 1868).
Elmer, G. "Die Münzprägung der gallischen Kaiser von Postumus bis Tetricus in Köln, Trier und Mailand." in Bonner Jahrbücher 146 (1941). pp. 1 - 106.
Gricourt, D. & D. Hollard, "Le Trésor de bronzes romains de Méricourt-l'Abbé: recherches sur les monnayages d'imitation tardifs de Postume" in TM XIII.
Mairat, J. Le monnayage de l'Empire Gaulois. CGB Rome XV. (Fixed Price List, 2004).
Mattingly, H., E. Sydenham & P. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol V, Part II, Probus to Amandus. (London, 1933).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Schulte, B. Die Goldprägung der gallischen Kaiser von Postumus bis Tetricus. Typos IV. (Aarau, 1983).
Schulzki, H. Die Antoninianprägung der Gallischen Kaiser von Postumus bis Tetricus. (Bonn, 1996).
Seaby, H. & D. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Vol. IV, Gordian III to Postumus. (London, 1982).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values III, The Accession of Maximinus I to the Death of Carinus AD 235 - AD 285. (London, 2005).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).
Weder, M. "Münzen und Münzstätten der Gallisch-Römischen Kaiser, Teil I" in SNR 76 (1997).
Weder, M. "Münzen und Münzstätten der Gallisch-Römischen Kaiser, Teil II" in SNR 77 (1998).
http://www.Gallic-Empire.com - http://www.gallic-empire.com/postumus.htm
Zschucke, C. Die Bronze-Teilstück-Prägungen der römischen Münzstätte Trier. (Trier, 2002).
Zschucke, C. Die römische Münzstätte Köln. (Trier, 1993).

Catalog current as of Friday, July 20, 2018.
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Roman Coins of Postumus