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Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
Septimius Severus, a native of Leptis Magna, Africa was proclaimed emperor by his troops after the murder of Pertinax. He is at the same time credited with strengthening and reviving an empire facing imminent decline and, through the same policies that saved it, causing its eventual fall. Severus eliminated the dangerous praetorians, unified the empire after turmoil and civil war, strengthened the army, defeated Rome's most powerful enemy, and founded a successful dynasty. His pay increases for the army, however, established a severe burden on Rome. Future emperors were expected to increase pay as well. These raises resulted in ever-increasing taxes that damaged the economy. Some historians believe high taxes, initiated by Severus policies, played a significant role in Rome's long-term decline. In 208 A.D., he traveled to Britain to defeat a disastrous barbarian invasion. He died in York in 211 A.D and was succeeded by his sons, Caracalla and Geta.
Hebros is the Romanized version of the original Thracian Ebros. Today it is the Maritsa river or, in Greece, the Evros. The river enters the Aegean Sea near Enez. The lower course of the Maritsa/Evros forms part of the Bulgarian-Greek border and most of the Greek-Turkish border. The upper Maritsa valley runs east-west in Bulgaria. The unnavigable river is used for power production and irrigation.
The Three Graces, named Euphrosyne, Aglaia and Thalia, were the attendants of Venus (Aphrodite).SH74540. Brass AE 31, SchŲnert-GeissAugusta Traiana 27 (V13/R24), Varbanov III 2739, SNG Cop -, BMC Thrace -, F, well centered, cleaning scratches, smoothing, weight 11.934 g, maximum diameter 31.2 mm, die axis 15o, Thrace, Traianopolis mint, hegemon Statilus Barbarus; obverse AYK Λ CEΠ - CEYHPOC Π, laureate head right; reverse HΓ CTATI BAPBAPOY TPAIANOΠO−ΛITΩN, River-god Hebrus reclining left on upturned urn; the Charites (the Three Graces) behind his legs standing facing; left and middle Charites with heads right, left Charis holding rod(?), middle Charis holding apple; big 31 mm bronze!; very rare; $580.00 SALE PRICE $522.00
Issued to commemorate victory in Britain. Between 208 and 210 A.D., Septimius Severus and his son Caracalla campaigned into Scotland (then Caledonia) and also restored Hadrian's Wall. The victories in the north pacified the island for the remainder of the century, but the aged Septimius died at Eburacum (York) in 211 A.D.SH83529. Silver denarius, RIC IV 332 (S); RSC III 727; BMCRE V p. 366, 51; Hunter III 108; SRCV II 6382, Choice gVF, some luster, perfect centering, nice portrait, light toning, small edge cracks, weight 3.369 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 210 - 211 A.D.; obverse SEVERVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right; reverseVICTORIAE BRIT (victories over the British), Victory advancing right, raising wreath in extended right hand, palm frond in left hand over left shoulder; scarce; $450.00 SALE PRICE $405.00
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Augusta Traiana, Thrace
Augusta Traiana (Stara Zagora, Bulgaria today) was founded by Trajan, c. 106 A.D. During 2nd - 3rd century A.D., it was the second largest city in Roman Thrace, after Philippopolis, and was fortified by strong walls. The city struck bronze coins from the time of Marcus Aurelius to Gallienus.RP83509. Brass AE 31, SchŲnert-GeissAugusta Traiana 163, Varbanov II 1009 (R7), SNG Cop -, BMC Thrace -, F, well centered, centration dimples, weight 15.997 g, maximum diameter 30.8 mm, die axis 0o, Augusta Traiana (Stara Zagora, Bulgaria) mint, 9 Apr 193 - 4 Feb 211 A.D.; obverse AV K Λ CEΠTI - CEVHPOC Π, laureate head right; reverse AVΓOVCT-HC TRAIAN-HC, tetrastyle temple on raised platform, flanked on each side by a tree and a stag leaping outward, Artemis standing right within the temple, holding bow in left hand and drawing arrow from quiver on shoulder with right hand; big 31 mm bronze!; very rare; $270.00 SALE PRICE $243.00
Adventus reverse types commemorate the emperor's arrival at Rome, either at the commencement of his reign or on his return from a distance. In 202, Septimius Severus returned to Rome after a five year absence. Festivals were held to celebrate his six year reign. Severus made changes in the imperial government, giving the Roman army a dominant role, raising pay in the legions, and permitting legionaries to marry in order to secure their loyalty.RS76380. Silver denarius, RIC IV 248 (S); RSC III 1; BMCRE V p. 213, 304; Hunter III 79; SRCV II 6255, VF, toned, broad flan with a few small edge cracks, weight 3.454 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 202 A.D.; obverse SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse ADVENT AVGG, Severus on horseback left, bare-headed, in military garb, raising right hand, spear in left hand; in front of him a soldier walking left, holding vexillum and leading the horse by its bridle; ex CNG auction 148 (20 Sep 2006), lot 357; ex Robert Kutcher Collection; scarce; $250.00 SALE PRICE $225.00
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior
The first of Herakles' twelve labors, set by his cousin King Eurystheus, was to slay the Nemean lion and bring back its skin. It could not be killed with mortal weapons because its golden fur was impervious to attack. Its claws were sharper than swords and could cut through any armor. Herakles stunned the beast with his club and, using his immense strength, strangled it to death. During the fight, the lion bit off one of his fingers. After slaying the lion, he tried to skin it with a knife from his belt but failed. WiseAthena, noticing the hero's plight, told him to use one of the lion's own claws to skin the pelt.RP77125. Bronze assarion, H-H-J Nikopolis 126.96.36.199 (R4), AMNG I/I 1308, Moushmov 1009, Varbanov -, SNG Cop -, VF, nice style, some marks and corrosion, weight 12.9 g, maximum diameter 28.5 mm, die axis 225o, Nicopolis ad Istrum (Nikyup, Bulgaria) mint, consular legate Aurelius Gallus, 201 - 203 A.D.; obverse AV K Λ CE CEVHPOC Π, laureate, draped, and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverse VΠ AVP ΓAΛΛOV NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC I (OV ligate), Herakles standing slightly right, nude, leaning on grounded club in right hand, patera in left hand, Nemean lion draped over left arm; $225.00 SALE PRICE $203.00
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Pautalia, Thrace
The site of Pautalia (modern Kyustendil, Bulgaria) was settled in the Iron Age by the Thracian Dentheletes tribe. It was located near thermal springs and remains of the ancient city include a temple of Asklepios and Roman baths. In the 1990s, excavation of nearby 2nd century A.D. tumuli unearthed bronze surgical instruments and a small bronze case containing a variety of medicines.RP63965. Bronze AE 30, Ruzicka 264 (same reverse die), Varbanov II 4653, SNG Cop -, BMC Thrace -, aF, smoothing, weight 26.306 g, maximum diameter 30.3 mm, die axis 180o, Pautalia (Kyustendil, Bulgaria) mint, obverse AYT K Λ CEΠTI CEYHPOC ΠEP CEB, laureate head right.; reverse HΓE K AIΛIOY ONEPATOY OYΛΠIAC ΠAYTAΛIAC, tetrastyle temple seen in three-quarters perspective, no steps, Apollo-Bonus Eventus standing within, flanked by a tree left and another right; thick sestertius-like flan; rare; $200.00 SALE PRICE $180.00
Severus was born in Leptis Magna (Khoms, Libya) in the Roman province of Africa. This type was struck to commemorate the emperor's visit to his native Africa in 207. See Leptis Magna on Wikipedia.RS79618. Silver denarius, RIC IV 207 (S); RSC III 493; BMCRE V p. 263, 531; SRCV II 6341, aEF, slightly off-center, weight 3.395 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, Rome mint, 207 A.D.; obverse SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverseP M TR P XV COS III P P, Africa standing half right, wearing elephant skin headdress, with right holding out drapery with fruits in the fold, lion at her feet right; scarce; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00
Annona was the goddess of harvest and her main attribute is grain. This reverse suggests the arrival of grain by sea from the provinces (especially from Egypt) and its distribution to the people.RS84946. Silver denarius, RIC IV 501, RSC III 39, BMCRE V 652, SRCV II 6262, Choice EF, light toning on luster, die wear, weight 3.667 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 180o, Laodicea ad Mare (Latakia, Syria) mint, 198 A.D.; obverse L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX, laureate head right; reverse ANNONAE AVGG, Annona standing half left, right foot on prow, stalks of grain in right hand, cornucopia in left; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Petra, Arabia
UNESCO describes Petra as "one of the most precious cultural properties of man's cultural heritage." The BBC selected Petra as one of "the 40 places you have to see before you die."RP84854. Bronze AE 25, Spijkerman 32, Rosenberger 19, SGICV 2281, SNG ANS -, VF, attractive earthen fill, weight 10.019 g, maximum diameter 24.9 mm, die axis 0o, Petra mint, 9 Apr 193 - 4 Feb 211 A.D.; obverse AV K Λ CEΠT CEOYHPOC IN ΠEP CEB (or similar), laureate bust right; reverse METPOΠOΛIC A∆PIAN ΠETRA, Tyche seated left on rock, turreted and veiled, right hand extended and open, trophy over shoulder in left; $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00
Virtus was a specific virtue in ancient Rome. It carried connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). It was thus a frequently stated virtue of Roman emperors and was personified as the deity Virtus.RB77368. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC IV 693 (R); BMCRE V p. 139, 562; Cohen IV 773; SRCV II 6445; Hunter III -, F, green patina, weight 20.523 g, maximum diameter 28.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 195 A.D.; obverse L SEPT SEV PERTAVG IMP V, laureate head right; reverseVIRTVTI AVG (to the valor of the emperor), Septimius Severus on the left, standing left, in military attire, Victory on globe in his right hand, spear in his left hand; Virtus or Roma standing left behind him, helmeted, in military attire, crowning him with a wreath in her right hand, parazonium in her left, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; ex Forum 2014; rare; $140.00 SALE PRICE $126.00
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