and Divus , , 36 B.C., , Gaul
was originally founded as the Roman city , a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods. The city became increasingly referred to as by the end of the 1st century A.D. The etymology of is a latinization of the Gaulish place name Lugodunon. While dunon means , the source of Lug is uncertain. The most commonly offered meaning is the god named Lug. During the Middle Ages, was transformed to by natural sound change.RR70870. Bronze , 515, 7, 689, F, 16.797 g, maximum 29.9 mm, 0o, ( , France) mint, 36 B.C.; IMP DIVI , two heads back to back: laureate of Divus to left and of to right; between them branch with its tip bent to right over Octavian's ; Prow of galley to right, ornamented with an eye and ; superimposed on globe and above deck, below; ; $490.00 (€436.10)
the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D., ,
Pacensis (or Pacifica) was founded by . The colony assumed his family name, , and on account of Vespasian's devotion to the goddess of Peace (to whom he built a temple at ); it was called Pacensis (or Pacifica).RP77123. Bronze AE 22, 1746-1749 (same dies); 454, 3023(?); -, gVF, nice , nice , die wear and crack, 6.695 g, maximum 22.4 mm, (Debelt, Bulgaria) mint, Feb 244 - End Sep 249 A.D.; IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped, and right, from behind, centration dimple; CO-L FL PAC DEV,LT (LT in ), prow of galley left on waves, ram's on point of ram, octopus and swimming left beside hull above waves; Pecunem Gitbud & Naumann auction 31 (3 May 2015), lot 313; ; $240.00 (€213.60)
, , Hieron II, 275 - 215 B.C.
Hieron II was tyrant and then of , c. 270 to 215 B.C. His rule brought 50 years of peace and prosperity, and became one of the most renowned capitals of antiquity. He enlarged the theater and built an immense . The literary figure Theocritus and the philosopher Archimedes lived under his rule. After struggling against the , he eventually allied with .GI84181. Bronze tetras, 844; 1446; 830; p. 218, 606; 1550 (S); cf. II p. 395, 197 (controls); 64 ff. (same), VF, dark green , 6.914 g, maximum 19.4 mm, 0o, mint, c. 268 - 218 B.C.; diademed of Poseidon left; ornamented trident , downward flanking on each side, IEPΩ−NOΣ horizontal across divided by shaft, AΠ (control letters) lower right; $200.00 (€178.00)
, , Hieron II, 275 - 215 B.C.
Hieron II was tyrant and then of , c. 270 to 215 B.C. His rule brought 50 years of peace and prosperity, and became one of the most renowned capitals of antiquity. He enlarged the theater and built an immense . The literary figure Theocritus and the philosopher Archimedes lived under his rule. After struggling against the , he eventually allied with .GI77003. Bronze tetras, p. 218, 608; II p. 395, 197 (ΛY right not listed); 852; 1403; 64 ff.; 1550 (S), gVF, nice Poseidon, about 1/5 off-center, very light corrosion and encrustation, light bumps and marks, 5.556 g, maximum 18.6 mm, 270o, mint, c. 268 - 218 B.C.; diademed of Poseidon left; ornamented trident , downward flanking on each side, IEPΩ−NOΣ horizontal across divided by shaft, ΛY lower right; $180.00 (€160.20)
Taras, , Italy, c. 380 - 355 B.C.
Taras, the only Spartan colony, was founded in 706 B.C. The founders were Partheniae ("sons of virgins"), sons of unmarried Spartan women and Perioeci (free men, but not citizens of Sparta). These out-of-wedlock unions were permitted to increase the prospective number of soldiers (only the citizens could be soldiers) during the bloody Messenian wars. Later, however, when they were no longer needed, their citizenship was retroactively nullified and the sons were obliged to leave forever. Their leader, Phalanthus, consulted the oracle at and was told to make the harbor of Taranto their . They named the city Taras after the son of Poseidon, and of a local nymph, Satyrion. The depicts Taras being saved from a shipwreck by a sent to him by Poseidon. This symbol of the ancient Greek city is the symbol of modern Taranto today.GI85329. Silver nomos, group 40, 607 (V239/R464); 454 (same dies); 879; 820 (same); 38; p. 174, 107, F, cutting off youth's , minor die damage (raised lump) below Θ, 7.689 g, maximum 18.5 mm, 180o, Taras (Taranto, Italy) mint, c. 380 - 355 B.C.; nude youth on horseback standing right, right hand lowered behind him on horse's side, reins in left hand, left foreleg raised, Θ below horse; Taras astride a left, in extended right hand, left hand behind on , TAPAΣ below; $150.00 (€133.50)
, , Dionysos I, 395 - 367 B.C.
Dionysius I was tyrant of . He conquered several cities in and southern Italy, opposed Carthage's influence in and made the most powerful of the Western Greek colonies. He was regarded by the ancients as an example of the worst kind of despot - cruel, suspicious and vindictive.GI84845. Bronze , II p. 111, 62; 454; 720; 1135; 697; p. 187, 287; 1189, F, 32.460 g, maximum 31.1 mm, 45o, mint, 395 - 367 B.C.; ΣYPA, of left wearing olive wreathed Corinthian helmet; sea between two dolphins; $135.00 (€120.15)
, , Hieron II, 275 - 215 B.C.
Hieron II was tyrant and then of , c. 270 to 215 B.C. His rule brought 50 years of peace and prosperity, and became one of the most renowned capitals of antiquity. He enlarged the theater and built an immense . The literary figure Theocritus and the philosopher Archimedes lived under his rule. After struggling against the , he eventually allied with . GB77040. Bronze tetras, cf. II p. 395, 197; p. 218, 588 ff.; 844 ff.; 64 ff.; 1394 ff.; 1550 (S); 1223, gVF/F, Poseidon, weak, areas of light corrosion, tiny edge cracks, 5.564 g, maximum 19.9 mm, 0o, mint, c. 268 - 218 B.C.; diademed of Poseidon left; ornamented trident , downward flanking on each side, IEPΩ−NOΣ in lower divided by shank, uncertain control below; $130.00 (€115.70)
Megara, , , 307 - 243 B.C.
Megara is in , the northern section of the Isthmus of Corinth opposite the island of Salamis, which belonged to Megara in archaic times, before being taken by Athens. Megara was a trade , its people using their ships and wealth as a way to gain leverage on armies of neighboring poleis. Megara specialized in exportation of wool and other animal products including livestock such as horses. It possessed two harbors, Pegae, to the on the Corinthian Gulf and Nisaea, to the east on the Saronic Gulf of the Aegean Sea. Megara had 23,456 inhabitants at the 2011 .GB85282. Bronze AE 15, 9.5, 482, gF, 2.435 g, maximum 14.8 mm, 0o, Megara mint, 307 - 243 B.C.; prow of galley left; two dolphins swimming clockwise around MEΓ within dotted ; ex CNG, ex ; $130.00 (€115.70)
Thasos, Islands off , c. 411 - 404 B.C.
In 411 B.C., Thasos revolted from Athens and received a Lacedaemonian governor. In 407 B.C. Spartans were expelled and the Athenians readmitted. After the Battle of Aegospotami in 405 B.C., Thasos again fell under the Lacedaemonians led by Lysander who formed a decarchy there. Athens must have recovered it, for later it was a subject of dispute with of .GA84665. Silver tritartemorion, 12; 1033, 60, 3665, 4218, 1756, VF, , surfaces lightly etched, 0.393 g, maximum 8.1 mm, 180o, Thasos mint, c. 411 - 404 B.C.; of satyr right; ΘAΣI, two dolphins swimming; $120.00 (€106.80)
Mygissos, , c. 350 - 300 B.C.
Many Greek cities had names beginning MY, and this has been attributed to many of them. Most references attribute the to Myus. Mygissos is most likely correct because nearby Nisyros issued coins with a very similar with NI above the .GB69183. Bronze , 335 (MY...), 1022 (Myus), 2114 (Myus), 3115 (Myus), 235 ( ?), 847 ( ), VF, pitting, 1.910 g, maximum 11.0 mm, 270o, Mygissos mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.; laureate of Poseidon right; right, MY above, trident right below; ; $110.00 (€97.90)
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