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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ Personifications ▸ Justice & EquityView Options:  |  |  |   

Justice: Equity (Dikaiosyne or Aequitas) and Punishment (Nemisis)

In Roman mythology, Aequitas was the minor goddess of fair trade and honest merchants. Aequitas was also a personification of the virtues equity and fairness of the emperor (Aequitas Augusti). She is depicted with a cornucopia and a balance suggesting Aequitas Augusti is a source of prosperity. Dikaiosyne is the Greek equivalent personification of justice and fair dealing.

Nemesis, the balancer of life, is the goddess of revenge, the avenger of crimes and punisher of wicked doers. She distributes fortune, good or bad, in due proportion to each according to what is deserved. She often holds a lorum, a long scarf worn by Roman magistrates, to symbolize her authority as judge, and scales or a cubit rule to measure each man's just deserts. The wheel of fate rests against her side.


Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D.

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RIC and RSC list this type with the reverse legend ending AVGG and note that Cohen describes it as ending AVG in error. Cohen does list this reverse from Antioch, but with a bust left. While the AVG ending is rare, we do know of other examples.
RA75211. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8917, Tulln Hoard 894, vri 7A, Bland 16 (29 spec.), Cohen V 9, RIC IV 82 var. (bust l.); RSC IV 8 var. (same), Hunter III -, Choice EF, some light marks, small edge cracks, weight 3.863 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, mid - end 247 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse AEQVITAS AVG (equity of the emperor), Aequitas standing half left, scales in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; rare; $155.00 (137.95)


Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.

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In Roman mythology, Aequitas was the minor goddess of fair trade and honest merchants. Aequitas was also the personification of the virtues equity and fairness of the emperor (Aequitas Augusti). The scales, a natural emblem of equity, express righteousness. The cornucopia signifies the prosperity which results from Aequitas and Aequitas Augusti.
RS83526. Silver denarius, RIC IV 274; RSC III 11; BMCRE VI p. 215, 1033; SRCV 7856; Hunter III -, Choice VF, excellent portrait, well centered, coppery areas, small edge cracks, weight 2.967 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 222 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust right, from behind; reverse AEQVITAS AVG (equity of the emperor), Aequitas standing slightly left, head left, scales in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, star upper left; $140.00 (124.60)


Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D.

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Nice gift for a lawyer or a judge. In Roman mythology, Aequitas was the minor goddess of fair trade and honest merchants. Aequitas was also the personification of the virtues equity and fairness of the emperor (Aequitas Augusti). The scales, a natural emblem of equity, express righteousness. The cornucopia signifies the prosperity which results from Aequitas and Aequitas Augusti.
RS84993. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 27b, RSC IV 9, Hunter III 25, SRCV III 8918, Choice EF, mint luster in recesses, light toning, well centered on a broad flan, some reverse die wear, weight 3.638 g, maximum diameter 23.4 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse AEQVITAS AVGG (equity of the two emperors), Aequitas standing facing, head left, scales in right, cornucopia in left; $135.00 (120.15)


Carinus, First Half 283 - Spring 285 A.D.

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In Roman mythology, Aequitas was the minor goddess of fair trade and honest merchants. Aequitas was also the personification of the virtues equity and fairness of the emperor (Aequitas Augusti). The scales, a natural emblem of equity, express righteousness. The cornucopia signifies the prosperity which results from Aequitas and Aequitas Augusti.
RA84976. Billon antoninianus, La Venra 3359 - 3362, RIC V 239, Cohen VI 6, SRCV III -, Hunter IV -, gVF, much silvering, some luster, broad flan, tiny pitting, weight 3.435 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 135o, 7th officina, Rome mint, 283 - 284 A.D.; obverse IMP CARINVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse AEQVITAS AVGG (equity of the two emperors), Aequitas standing half left, scales in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, KAZ in exergue; $120.00 (106.80)


Tacitus, 25 September 275 - June 276 A.D.

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In Roman mythology, Aequitas was the minor goddess of fair trade and honest merchants. Aequitas was also the personification of the virtues equity and fairness of the emperor (Aequitas Augusti). The scales, a natural emblem of equity, express righteousness. The cornucopia signifies the prosperity which results from Aequitas and Aequitas Augusti.
RA83503. Billon antoninianus, MER-RIC 3539, RIC V 82, BnF XII 1604, Hunter IV 3, Venra 549 - 561, Gloucester 690, Maravielle 708, Navis-Mhlen 142, Choice EF, well centered, much silvering, light marks, weight 3.342 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Rome mint, issue 3, early 276 ? June 276 A.D.; obverse IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse AEQVITAS AVG (equity of the emperor), Aequitas standing slightly left, scales in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, Γ in right field, XXI in exergue; $115.00 (102.35)


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.

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On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.
RS70291. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 21; RSC II 94a; BMCRE II 17; BnF III 10; SRCV I 2284, VF, excellent portrait, toned, well centered on a tight flan, small edge cracks, weight 3.231 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse COS ITER TR POT, Aequitas standing left, scales in right hand, scepter transverse in left; $90.00 (80.10)


Carinus, First Half 283 - Spring 285 A.D.

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In Roman mythology, Aequitas was the minor goddess of fair trade and honest merchants. Aequitas was also the personification of the virtues equity and fairness of the emperor (Aequitas Augusti). The scales, a natural emblem of equity, express righteousness. The cornucopia signifies the prosperity which results from Aequitas and Aequitas Augusti.
RA73892. Billon antoninianus, RIC V 212, Bastien IX 533, Pink VI-2 p. 22, Cohen VI 8, SRCV III 12339, gVF, nice portrait, well struck, some silvering, weight 3.774 g, maximum diameter 22.7 mm, die axis 0o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 283 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR CARINVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse AEQVITAS AVGG (equity of the two emperors), Aequitas standing slightly left, scales in right hand, scepter in left hand, A (1st officina) right; ex Harlan J. Berk; $85.00 (75.65)


Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.

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Justitia is the Roman goddess or personification of justice. She was not depicted on many Roman coin types. Perhaps this coin would make a nice gift for a lawyer or judge!
RB57395. Orichalcum sestertius, BMCRE VI 613, Hunter III 127, RIC IV 563b (S), Cohen 106 var. (cuirassed), SRCV II 7971 var. (no drapery), VF, green patina, scratch on reverse, weight 14.678 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 230 A.D.; obverse IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG, laureate head right; reverse IVSTITIA AVGVSTI, Justitia seated left, patera in right hand, scepter in left hand, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; scarce; $80.00 (71.20)


Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.

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This type has two reverse variants. Some dies had the cornucopia rotated with the tip away from Honos (FORVM 21590, BMC III 1683) while other dies, such as the one this coin was struck with, have a normal design. RIC does not make the distinction.

Honos was the god of chivalry, honor and military justice. He was usually depicted in art with a spear and a cornucopia. He was sometimes identified with Virtus.
RB73713. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC III 772 (S), Cohen II 414, BMCRE IV 1683 var. (cornucopia tip turned outwards), Hunter II 384 var. (same) SRCV II 4179 var. (same), aF, green patina, corrosion, weight 25.074 g, maximum diameter 31.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 145 - 7 Mar 161 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P, laureate head right; reverse HONORI AVG COS IIII, Honos standing facing, head left, togate, branch in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across fields; scarce; $70.00 (62.30)


Salonina, Augusta, 254 - c. September 268 A.D., Wife of Gallienus

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In Roman mythology, Aequitas was the minor goddess of fair trade and honest merchants. Aequitas was also the personification of the virtues equity and fairness of the emperor (Aequitas Augusti). The scales, a natural emblem of equity, express righteousness. The cornucopia signifies the prosperity which results from Aequitas and Aequitas Augusti.
RA57189. Billon antoninianus, Gbl MIR 1648d, Hunter IV S34, RSC IV 4, RIC V S87, SRCV III 10625, VF, bold full circle obverse strike on a broad flan, weight 4.068 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 266 - 267 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in horizontal ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, bust resting on thin crescent; reverse AEQVITAS AVG (equity of the emperor), Aequitas standing half left, scales in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, crescent upper left, VIIC (COS VII) in exergue; $60.00 (53.40)




  



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REFERENCES

Posnansky, H. Nemesis und Adrasteia. (Koebner, 1890).
Catalog current as of Sunday, September 24, 2017.
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Justice