France, Provincial, Duchy of Normandie, William the Conqueror, 1035 - 1087, In the Name of William Rufus(?)
There are two varieties of this denier, one with RICAR above the ( 336) and the other with two W's ( 337, and list only one specimen, in the Brussels Coin Cabinet). These two types were struck in the reign of William the Conqueror, after 1070. The RICAR issue may have been struck in the name of his son Richard (1057- c. 1081), Duke of Bernay; and the W's may refer to his son William Rufus (1056 - 1100), of the English.ME79660. Silver denier, pl. XX, 12 (Brussels Coin Cabinet); 337 (same, unique); d'Avant –; –; –; –, VF, , 0.801 g, maximum 18.5 mm, 0o, Rouen mint, c. 1070 - 1081; + NORMANNA, , pellets in each quarter, within linear inner ; cathedral facade, within arched doorway, two pellets above arch, two towers flanking (each a line topped with an annulet), pellet in triangular , two W's (for William Rufus?) above the ; extremely ; $480.00 (€427.20)
, Armenian , Roupen I, 1080 - 1095 A.D.
In 1080, Roupen I declared independent from the , founding the Roupenian dynasty, which ruled Cilician until 1219. He led bold and successful military campaigns against the Byzantines, including capturing the fortress of Pardzerpert (Andirin, Turkey today), which became a stronghold of the .SH66597. Bronze Pogh, 1 var. (no crescent), 245 var. (same), aVF, 1.853 g, maximum 20.3 mm, 315o, Armenian : Raiben (Roupen), within , pellet in each quarter; Armenian : Tsara ay (Servant of God), within , crescent in one quarter; very ; $360.00 (€320.40)
Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of or Counts of & , c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs less then 1/3 the of the even the lightest official Class B has handled. to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and .ME73353. Bronze follaro, apparently unpublished, imitative of Class B ( 1823, Constantinople, 1028 - 1041); -, MIR -, -, F, 2.163 g, maximum 23.3 mm, 180o, uncertain Italian mint, c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.; facing of Christ, wearing , , and , holding book of Gospels; IS - XS / bAS-ILE / bAS-ILE (Jesus Christ of Kings, mostly off ), on three steps, dividing ; from a California collector; $240.00 (€213.60)
, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D., , Coele
describes the as a "figure (?) with plumes headdress, on pedestal." The coin is worn and the "figure" is a bit taller and thinner than our , but the coin does seem to be this same .
The site of ancient (Dion, ) has not been conclusively identified. The four leading candidates for are Tell al-Husn and Edun, both near Irbid, in Jordan, Kufr Abil, near , and Tell al-Ash'ari, near the Syrian town of Der'a.RY77849. Bronze AE 22, 9 , 10 var. (legends), 10 var. (legends), -, -, -, -, aF, earthen deposit highlighting, , corrosion, 7.701 g, maximum 22.0 mm, 180o, mint, 219 - 220 A.D.; AV KAI MAV ANTWNINO, laureate and draped or youthful right, from the front; temple, flaming within under central arch, ΓΠ-C (year 283) divided above roof, ∆IHNWN in ; very ; $225.00 (€200.25)
, County of Tripoli, II, 1137-1152 A.D.
II considered the Syrian Christians of Tripoli responsible for treachery which led to his father's defeat and death in a battle with . After the battle, he took many of them prisoner, and as William of Tyre wrote, "he visited upon them diverse tortures in the presence of the people, and, in just proportion to the enormity of the crime which they had committed, he caused them to suffer death in its most cruel forms." This act was praised by the Latin Christians as "the first proofs of valor which were given by the young count, whereby he won the affection of all his people and universal approval." In 1142 donated Krak des Chevaliers, an enormous fortress on the road from Homs to the Mediterranean, as well as other smaller castles, to the Knights Hospitallers. The Hospitallers were virtually independent in the county, for which they protected Tripoli's borders from frequent raids by the forces of and Zanki, the Turkish atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo.ME76426. Bronze fraction, 1, 194 - 199; 5; 513; VI 5, VF, octagonal , light corrosion, earthen deposits, 1.017 g, maximum 16.9 mm, Tripoli mint, c. 1145 - 1149; + RAIMVNDVS ( at the bottom, starts at 7:00, ), eight pointed , pellet between each ray, shallow crescent with horns up below, all within inner ; with three annulets at the end of each arm, crossed by smaller with crescent horns inward pellet and annulet at the end of each arm; very ; $200.00 (€178.00)
, County of Tripoli, Bohemond V, 1233 - 1252
Bohemond V was Prince of Antioch and Count of Tripoli from 1233 to his death in January 1252. Bohemond V was the son of Bohemund IV of Antioch and Plaisance of Gibelet. Like his father before him, Bohemond had a notorious dislike for the Knights Hospitaller and the neighboring Kingdom of , preferring an with the Knights Templar. Peace with was assured only shortly before his death, with the mediation of Louis IX of France.ME76428. denier, 5, 75 - 127; 19; 547 - 550; IV 17, VF, , 0.609 g, maximum 15.4 mm, 315o, Tripoli mint, 1233 - 1251; + BAMVND' COMS, , three pellets in upper right quarter, beaded borders; + TRIPOL, eight pointed , annulets between the rays, beaded borders; ; $200.00 (€178.00)
Normans, Kingdom of , Roger II, 1105 - 1154 A.D.
Roger II was of , son of Roger I of and successor to his brother Simon. He began his rule as Count of in 1105, became Duke of and in 1127, and then of in 1130. Roger II is remembered for having united all of the Norman conquests in Italy under one strong central government. He was also the grandfather of Frederick II.ME70465. Bronze follaro, 135 (R2), 227, F, both sides off-center, 1.120 g, maximum 14.9 mm, 180o, Messina mint, 1150 - 1151 A.D.; MP − ΘY (Greek abbreviation: Mother of God), half-length of the Virgin facing; Arabic arranged as a : umila five hundred forty five (struck in 545 AH), four dots arranged in a square in each quarter; very ; $180.00 (€160.20)
(?), Imitative of Zangids of , c. 1146 - 1200 A.D.,
This coin is a crude imitative of an Islamic fals of the Zangids of , Nur al-Din Mahmud, struck at Halab (Aleppo, ), 1146 - 1173 ( 73, 1850). That was itself also imitative, copying a of Constantine X, struck at Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey), 1059 - 1067 ( 8, 1853). The quality of the Zangids fals vary greatly and it can be difficult to distinguish between Halab mint issues and imitatives. This example is very crude and if any can be attributed to the , this is one.BZ77974. Bronze , -; cf. 73 (notes "barbaric" imitations), 1850 (notes imitations are perhaps struck by the ), F, desert , , 2.798 g, maximum 22.0 mm, 180o, uncertain mint, c. 1150 - 1200 A.D.; two imperial figures (Constantine X and ) standing facing, supporting between them resting on three steps, EX downward on left, imitation of inner left; Christ standing facing, , book of Gospels in left hand, right hand on hip, flanking , blundered imitation of around; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; $180.00 (€160.20)
of Christ, Class A3, Basil II & Constantine , c. 1023 - 11 November 1028 A.D.
The emperor's name and portrait are not of the design on the types referred to as . Instead of the earthly , these coins depict Jesus Christ, of Kings.BZ84502. Bronze , of Christ, class A3; 1818; ornaments 45, VF, green , , detail of not fully struck, encrustations, 10.063 g, maximum 31.0 mm, 180o, Greek(?) mint, c. 1023 - 11 Nov 1028 A.D.; EMMANOVHL, facing of Christ, wearing with crescent in each limb of , , and , holding gospels with both , to left IC, to right XC; IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ of Kings), above and below ; $170.00 (€151.30)
Kingdom of Naples and , Phillip II of Spain, 25 July 1554 - 13 September 1598
was of Spain from 1556 and of Portugal from 1581 (as , Filipe I). From 1554 he was of Naples and as well as Duke of . During his marriage to Queen Mary I (1554 - 58), he was also of England and Ireland. From 1555, he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. Known in Spanish as "Philip the Prudent" (Felipe el Prudente), his empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake Philippine Islands. During his reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power. The expression "The empire on which the sun never sets" was coined during Philip's time to reflect the extent of his possessions.ME66320. Bronze cavallo, 198 var. ( variations and the dividing the noted in MIR), aF, , 1.956 g, maximum 18.8 mm, 0o, Naples mint, PHILIPP REX ARA VT (sic), right, no date(?); HIERVS + (sic), crown, divided at the top by small ; $160.00 (€142.40)
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