Roman Republic, L. Marcius Censorinus, 82 B.C.
The moneyer selected the design to play on his name, sounds like Marcius.
found Athena's flute. Inspired by the breath of a goddess, it played beautifully. Foolishly he challenged to a musical contest. won by singing to the music of his . As a just punishment for his presumption, flayed alive. His blood was the source of the river , and his skin was hung like a wine bag in the cave out of which that river flows.SH73011. Silver
Vibo (Hipponion), , Italy, c. 192 - 89 B.C.
Vibo was originally the Greek colony of Hipponion. It was founded, probably around the late 7th century B.C., by inhabitants of Locri, a city south of Vibo on the Sea. In 388 B.C., the city was taken by Dionysius the Elder, tyrant of , who deported the entire population. The population came back in 378 B.C., with the of the Carthaginians. In the following years Hipponion came under the dominion of the Bruttii. The town fell to and became a Roman colony in 194 B.C. with the name of Vibo . After a phase of prosperity during the late Republic and early Empire, the town was almost completely abandoned after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.GI76947. Bronze
Olynthos, Chalkidian League, , 420 - 348 B.C.
In 432 B.C. Olynthos broke away from Athens and, with several other cities, formed the Chalkidian league. In 393, Amyntas III of temporally transferred territory to Olynthos when he was driven out of by Illyrians. When he was and the league did not return his lands, he appealed to Sparta. Akanthos and Apollonia, also appealed to Sparta, claiming league membership was not voluntary but enforced at the point of a sword. After a long war, in 379 these cities were made "autonomous" subject allies of Sparta. Weakened by the division, the league was destroyed by of Macedon in 348 B.C.SH64053. Silver tetrobol,
, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D., , in with
This coin commemorates the ( ) between and . Cities in and sometimes formed alliances with other cities. The competition for prestige and rivalry between cities in the East was intense. Alliances could enhance a city’s status by aligning either with many cities or with particularly important ones. was of civic "foreign policy" and might have involved the exchange of delegates and joint celebrations and sacrifices. At least 87 cities issued coins celebrating their alliances.RP77255. Bronze AE 30, cf.
Kingdom of , Prusias II , 185 - 149 B.C.
Prusias II, son of Prusias I, inherited his father's name but not his character. He first joined with Eumenes of in war against , but later turned on and invaded. He was defeated and demanded heavy reparations. Prusias sent his son Nicomedes II to to ask for aid in reducing the payments. When Nicomedes revolted, Prusias II was murdered in the temple of Zeus at Nikomedia.SH71012. Bronze AE 21,
, Philip III Arrhidaeus and Alexander IV, 323 - 317 B.C., Struck in the Name of Philip
Struck in the name of Philip III Arrhidaeus, Alexander the Great's half-brother, under the regent Perdikkas. Philip III and Alexander's infant son, Alexander IV, were made joint kings after Alexander's death. Philip was the bastard son of and a dancer, Philinna of . Alexander the Great's mother, , allegedly poisoned her stepson Philip III as a child, leaving him mentally disabled, eliminating him as a rival to Alexander. Neither Philip III nor Alexander IV was capable of actual rule and both were selected only to serve as pawns. The regents held power, while Philip III was actually imprisoned. In 317, Philip was murdered by to ensure the succession of her grandson.SH75320. Silver
, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.
In 243, Timesitheus, Gordian's father-in-law and praetorian prefect became ill and died under suspicious circumstances. appointed Philip the Arab as his new praetorian prefect.RB76166.
, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D., Struck at for Use in
The ( ) was an ancient stringed musical instrument resembling the . The was a simpler folk-instrument with two strings and tortoise shell body. The had seven strings and a flat back. A symbol of , credited with inventing it, the Kithara's origins were likely Asiatic. The was primarily used by professional musicians, called kitharodes. In modern Greek, the word has come to mean "guitar."RY76699.
Leontini, , c. 405 - 402 B.C.
Leontini was founded as by from Naxos in 729 BC, itself a Chalcidian colony established five years earlier. It was the only significant Greek settlement in not located on the coast, being some 6 miles inland. The site, originally held by the Sicels, was seized by the Greeks owing to its command of the fertile plain to the . The city was reduced to subject status in 498 BC by Hippocrates of Gela, and in 476 BC Hieron of moved the inhabitants from Catania and Naxos to Leontini. GI76342. Bronze tetras,
, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D.
was born a hermaphrodite, but castrated by the gods, she became female. Heeding the Sibylline oracle, the senate brought her worship to in 204 B.C. as the first officially sanctioned Eastern cult. After approval, they were dismayed to learn that the priesthood required voluntary self-castration, which was abhorrent to the Romans. Romans were barred from entering the priesthood or even entering the priest's sanctuary. The eunuch priests, recruited from outside , were confined to their sanctuary, leaving only to parade in the streets during festivals in April. removed the bans on Roman participation, making worship of and her consort of the state religion.RS84676. Silver
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