Normans, Kingdom of , William II, 1166 - 1189 A.D.
Secluded and pleasure-loving, William II, the , seldom emerged from his palace life at Palermo. Yet his reign was marked by an ambitious foreign policy and vigorous diplomacy. Champion of the papacy and in secret league with the Lombard cities he was able to defy the common enemy, Frederick I Barbarossa.SH71138.
, Armenian , Roupen I, 1080 - 1095 A.D.
In 1080, Roupen I declared independent from the , founding the Roupenian dynasty, which ruled Cilician until 1219. He led bold and successful military campaigns against the Byzantines, including capturing the fortress of Pardzerpert (Andirin, Turkey today), which became a stronghold of the .SH66597. Bronze Pogh,
Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of or Counts of & , c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs less then 1/3 the of the even the lightest official Class B has handled. to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and .ME73353. Bronze follaro, apparently unpublished, imitative of Class B
, County of Tripoli, II, 1137-1152 A.D.
II considered the Syrian Christians of Tripoli responsible for treachery which led to his father's defeat and death in a battle with . After the battle, he took many of them prisoner, and as William of Tyre wrote, "he visited upon them diverse tortures in the presence of the people, and, in just proportion to the enormity of the crime which they had committed, he caused them to suffer death in its most cruel forms." This act was praised by the Latin Christians as "the first proofs of valor which were given by the young count, whereby he won the affection of all his people and universal approval." In 1142 donated Krak des Chevaliers, an enormous fortress on the road from Homs to the Mediterranean, as well as other smaller castles, to the Knights Hospitallers. The Hospitallers were virtually independent in the county, for which they protected Tripoli's borders from frequent raids by the forces of and Zanki, the Turkish atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo.ME76426. Bronze fraction,
, County of Tripoli, Bohemond V, 1233 - 1252
Bohemond V was Prince of Antioch and Count of Tripoli from 1233 to his death in January 1252. Bohemond V was the son of Bohemund IV of Antioch and Plaisance of Gibelet. Like his father before him, Bohemond had a notorious dislike for the Knights Hospitaller and the neighboring Kingdom of , preferring an with the Knights Templar. Peace with was assured only shortly before his death, with the mediation of Louis IX of France.ME76428.
Normans, Kingdom of , Roger II, 1105 - 1154 A.D.
Roger II was of , son of Roger I of and successor to his brother Simon. He began his rule as Count of in 1105, became Duke of and in 1127, and then of in 1130. Roger II is remembered for having united all of the Norman conquests in Italy under one strong central government. He was also the grandfather of Frederick II.ME70465. Bronze follaro,
(?), Imitative of Zangids of , c. 1146 - 1200 A.D.,
This coin is a crude imitative of an Islamic fals of the Zangids of , Nur al-Din Mahmud, struck at Halab (Aleppo, ), 1146 - 1173 ( 73, 1850). That was itself also imitative, copying a of Constantine X, struck at Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey), 1059 - 1067 ( 8, 1853). The quality of the Zangids fals vary greatly and it can be difficult to distinguish between Halab mint issues and imitatives. This example is very crude and if any can be attributed to the , this is one.BZ77974. Bronze
Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of or Counts of & , c. 1081 - 1087 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs about 1/3 the normal of an official Class J . to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and .ME68381. Bronze
Normans, Kingdom of , Roger II, 1105 - 1154 A.D.
Until the Normans, Bari was governed by the Byzantines, with occasional interruption. It was a major depot for trade in Slavic slaves, destined most frequently for Muslim states including the Caliphate which relied on Slavs purchased at Bari for its legions of Sakalaba Mamluks. Captured by Kalfun in 847, Bari was the center of the Emirate of Bari for 20 years. Emperor Louis II fought for five years to take Bari, and was only successful with the aid of a naval blockade. In 885, Bari became the residence of the local catapan. In 1025, under the Archbishop Byzantius, Bari became attached to the see of Rome and was granted "provincial" status. In 1071, Robert Guiscard captured Bari after a three-year siege. The Greeks refused the Latin ways and a civil war broke out in 1117. Bari was seized by Grimoald Alferanites, a native Lombard, and he was elected lord in opposition to the Normans. Grimoald later did homage to Roger II of , but then rebelled and was defeated in 1132. Bari was occupied by Manuel I Komnenos from 1155 to 1158. In 1246, Bari was sacked and razed to the ground. It was subsequently rebuilt, destroyed and rebuilt several times. ME68460. Bronze follaro,
, County of Tripoli, Bohemond IV, 1187 - 1233
Bohemond IV the One-Eyed, was Count of Tripoli from 1187 to 1233, and Prince of Antioch from 1201 to 1216 and from 1219 to 1233. The dying III of Tripoli offered his county to Bohemond's elder brother, , but their father Bohemond III of Antioch sent Bohemond to Tripoli in late 1187. Saladin, the of and , conquered the County in summer 1188, save for the capital and two fortresses. The county was returned in the truce that Bohemond's father made with Saladin in 1192. After his father died Bohemond seized Antioch. He made an with emir of Aleppo and the Seljuq of Rum, who often invaded in the following years, preventing of from attacking Antioch. supported a rebellion in Tripoli, which Bohemond crushed, but he lost an eye fighting. Bohemond confiscated the property of the Hospitallers, for which he was excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX. He tried to secure for his younger son, Philip, but Constantine of Baberon, who had administered , imprisoned Philip and Philip was murdered the following year. Bohemond's excommunication was lifted shortly before his death when he made an agreement with the Hospitallers.ME76429. Bronze pougeoise,
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