Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of or Counts of & , c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs less then 1/3 the of the even the lightest official Class B has handled. to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and .ME73353. Bronze follaro, apparently unpublished, imitative of Class B ( 1823, Constantinople, 1028 - 1041); -, MIR -, -, F, 2.163 g, maximum 23.3 mm, 180o, uncertain Italian mint, c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.; facing of Christ, wearing , , and , holding book of Gospels; IS - XS / bAS-ILE / bAS-ILE (Jesus Christ of Kings, mostly off ), on three steps, dividing ; from a California collector; $195.00 (€173.55)
(?), Imitative of Zangids of , c. 1146 - 1200 A.D.,
This coin is a crude imitative of an fals of the Zangids of , Nur al-Din Mahmud, struck at Halab (Aleppo, ), 1146 - 1173 ( 73, 1850). That was itself also imitative, copying a of Constantine X, struck at Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey), 1059 - 1067 ( 8, 1853). The quality of the Zangids fals vary greatly and it can be difficult to distinguish between Halab mint issues and imitatives. This example is very crude and if any can be attributed to the , this is one.BZ77974. Bronze , -; cf. 73 (notes "barbaric" imitations), 1850 (notes imitations are perhaps struck by the ), F, desert , , 2.798 g, maximum 22.0 mm, 180o, uncertain mint, c. 1150 - 1200 A.D.; two imperial figures (Constantine X and ) standing facing, supporting between them resting on three steps, EX downward on left, imitation of inner left; Christ standing facing, , book of Gospels in left hand, right hand on hip, flanking , blundered imitation of around; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; $140.00 (€124.60)
Empire, Khusro II, Occupation of , 618 - 628 A.D.
During his temporary domination of , 618 - 628 A.D., Khusru allowed the mint to continue issuing the normal coinage, but substituted his portrait for the emperor's. The sun and moon replaced the , just as on coinage. It may seem strange that a Persian would wear a crown surmounted by a ; however, his wife Sira was a Christian, he was a benefactor of the of St. Sergius in Edessa, he honored the Virgin, and he sometimes wore a robe embroidered with a which he had received as a gift from the Emperor . The emperors resumed the imperial coinage of after their recapture of in 628 A.D.WA77071. Bronze 12 nummi,
Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of or Counts of & , c. 1081 - 1087 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs about 1/3 the normal of an official Class J . to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and .ME68381. Bronze , apparently unpublished, imitative of class J ( 1900, Constantinople, 1081 - 1118); -, -, -, aF, on a very small thin compared to proto-types, 2.200 g, maximum 21.0 mm, 180o, uncertain S. Italy mint, c. 1081 - 1087 A.D.; of Christ facing, behind, wears and colbium, raising right in , Gospels in left, crescents above, flanking, facing of Christ, wearing , , and , holding book of Gospels; with globule and two pellets at each extremity, large crescent below, four globules around each surrounded by pellets; from an American collection; very ; $125.00 (€111.25)
, Palaestina or , c. 450 - 500 A.D.
This object, from the Alex Malloy Collection, was held by him for decades, only speculatively attributed as probably . The referenced recent article by Farhi indicates another possible . As discussed by Farhi, in the second half of the 5th century, besides nummi, low-value currency in Palaestina appears to have included similar sized centuries old Jewish , cast Axumite imitations, and even bronze and lead blank flans. Many fragments of lead mirror frames, found over many years, appear to have been cut around decorative star-like or floral patterns to look like coins. They were almost certainly used as coins. The lead mirror frame fragment "coins" in Farhi have different patterns and are blank on one side, but this object is very similar.BZ53343. Lead , fragment of ornamented lead object coinage(?); See Farhi, H. "Note on Two Types of Lead Currency" in INR 8 (2013) for similar examples, 2.836 g, maximum 23.1 mm, ex Collection; $60.00 (€53.40)
Bulgarian, Imitative of Alexis III, Aspron , c. 1204 - 1220 A.D.
Greek magnates in probably issued the earliest "Bulgarian" imitative types in the years immediately following the fall of Constantinople to finance their military operations against the in northern . When the Bulgarians gained control of they continued production until sometime between 1215 and 1220, with issues becoming increasingly crude and smaller.BZ79669. , , p. 218, C, pl. 25, 2(B) (imitative of 2012 of Alexis III, 1195 - 1203 A.D. ), VF, , 2.848 g, maximum 26.5 mm, 180o, + KεRO HΘεI, , beardless of Christ, wearing tunic and , raising right in , scroll in left; ΛΛEΣIW ∆ECΠ Θ TW KOMNHNW (or similar), emperor, on left, and St. Constantine, on right, standing facing, each holds a headed and they hold a between them; Constantine the Great on the !; $32.00 (€28.48)
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