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Counterfeit, Unofficial, Imitative and Barbaric Roman Coins
Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.
The S - Preverse marks were used in 293. This obverselegend was used only until 291 and the portrait style is only correct for coins up to 292. The reverselegend should read COMES AVG. Although the style is equivalent to official issues, this coin is probably an unofficial imitative. RA73280. Billonantoninianus, RIC V-2 447 (R), Webb Carausius 496, Hunter IV -, SRCV IV -, Bourne Carausius -, Linchmere -, Burton Latimer -, Bicester -, Carausian Hoard -, aVF, centered, corrosion, most of the reverselegend unstruck or obliterated, weight 5.637 g, maximum diameter 23.4 mm, die axis 0o, unmarked or unofficial mint, c. 293 A.D.; obverse IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right; reverse COMIS AVG (companion of the Emperor), Victory standing left, raising wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand, S - P flanking across field (just a trace of the P remaining), nothing (or pellet?) in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; $125.00 (€106.25)
Roman Republic, Unofficial, c. 169 - 91 B.C.
Crawford notes, "The very common quadrantes with M • and N• (as Milan 351) are clearly unofficial."RR79715. Copper quadrans, cf. Milan 351 (from Crawford appendix p. 309 unofficial issues of bronze coins), Sydenham -, VF, centered on a tight flan, light marks,, weight 4.182 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 135o, unofficial mint, c. 169 - 91 B.C.; obversehead of Hercules right, wearing Nemean Lion scalp headdress, three pellets behind; reverse prow right, ROMA below, three pellets before, M• above; ex FORVM (2006), ex Goodman collection; $125.00 (€106.25)
Roman Republic, Anonymous (Unofficial?), c. 91 B.C.
Russo suspects this type may be unofficial because, despite the attractive style, the prow does not include the usual features found on most coins of the period. RR88352. Copper quadrans, RBW Collection 1244 (unofficial?), Crawford 339/4a, Sydenham 679c, BMCRRRome 2208, SRCV I 1195, VF, porous, rough, edge splits, weight 2.114 g, maximum diameter 16.7 mm, die axis 180o, unofficial(?) mint, c. 169 - 91 B.C.; obversehead of Hercules right, wearing Nemean Lion scalp headdress, three pellets behind; reverse prow right, apotropaic on side, ROMA above, three pellets below; $95.00 (€80.75)
Roman Republic, Unofficial, c. 91 B.C.
In 91 B.C., the tribune Marcus Livius Drusus proposed extending Roman citizenship to allied Italian cities, but was assassinated, leading to the Social War.RR88243. Copper quadrans, cf. Crawford 339/4c (official), Sydenham 679c (official), SRCV I 1194 (official), RBW Collection -, VF, obverse off center, porous/corrosion, weight 3.181 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, die axis 45o, unofficial mint, c. 91 B.C.; obversehead of Hercules right, wearing Nemean Lion scalp headdress, three pellets behind; reverse prow of galley right, three pellets right, ROMA below; $80.00 (€68.00)
Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D., Iberian(?) Barbaric Imitative
RB70583. Copper as, cf. SRCV I 1685, RIC I 431, BMCRE 226, Cohen I 515, BnF I 687 (official, Rome mint, 7 B.C.), F, interesting crude style, nice green patina, edge cracks, scratches, pits on reverses, weight 10.390 g, maximum diameter 25.7 mm, die axis 225o, Iberian(?) unofficial mint, obversebare head right; reverse large S C; $70.00 (€59.50)
Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 December 192 A.D.
Providentia is the personification of the ability to foresee and to make provision for the future. This ability was considered essential for the emperor and providentia was among the embodiments of virtues that were part of the imperial cult. Cicero said that providentia, memoria (memory) and intellegentia (understanding) are the three main components of prudentia, the knowledge what is good or bad or neither.RS85049. Fouree silver plateddenarius, cf. RIC III 19, RSC II 804, BMCRE IV 66, Hunter II -, SRCV II - (official, Rome mint, 10 Dec 180 - 10 Dec 181 A.D.), aVF, well centered, toned, bumps and scratches, edge cracks, copper core exposed in a few spots, weight 2.713 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis 0o, unofficial counterfeiter's mint, c. 181 - 182 A.D.; obverse M COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse TR P VI IMP IIII COS III P P, Providentia standing half left, head left, wand in right hand over globe at feet, long grounded scepter in left hand; $55.00 (€46.75)
Roman Republic, Anonymous, 211 - 206 B.C.
In 211 B.C., Hannibal marched northwards on the city of Rome in a belated and unsuccessful effort to capture the city. Rome faced the danger of famine, caused by Hannibal's forces and the withdrawal of so many men from farming. The situation was only relieved by an urgent appeal by the Romans to the King of Egypt, Ptolemy IV, from whom grain was purchased at three times the usual price. RR88016. Bronze quadrans, cf. RBW Collection 228, Crawford 58/6, Sydenham 218c, F, obverse rough, earthen deposits, weight 4.318 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 270o, unofficial(?) mint, c. 211 - 206 B.C.; obversehead of Hercules right, wearing Nemean Lion scalp headdress, three pellets behind; reverse galley prow right, ROMA above, three pellets below, cornucopia(?) before; $50.00 (€42.50)
Gallic Empire, Tetricus I, mid 271 - Spring 274 A.D., Barbaric Imitative
Laetitia is the Roman goddess of gaiety and joy, her name deriving from the root word laeta, meaning happy. She is typically depicted on coinage with a wreath in her right hand, and a scepter, a rudder, or an anchor in her left hand.RL20960. Bronze barbarous radiate, cf. official prototype: RIC V-2 90, SRCV III 11240, VF, porosity, weight 2.446 g, maximum diameter 15.6 mm, die axis 180o, unofficial mint, 272 - 290 A.D.; obverse IIVI S C TIITRICVS I (or similar, blundered), radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverse ..HI..., Laetitia standing left, wreath in right hand, grounded anchor in left hand; $50.00 (€42.50)
Roman Republic, Lucius Flaminius Chilo, c. 109 - 108 B.C., Ancient Counterfeit
The Roman numeral X is a denomination mark for the denarius. Originally the denarius was valued at ten asses, explaining the origin of the mark. When the denarius was revalued to 16, a ligature of of XVI ( X ) was adopted as a mark of value, but the older X was also still used. A genuine Roman denarius would not have more than one mark of value on the obverse. No copper or bronze core is visible but the fabric is clearly unusual and unofficial. RR88427. Fouree silver plateddenarius, cf. Crawford 302/1, Sydenham 540, BMCRRRome 537, RSC IFlaminia 1, RBW Collection 1144, SRCV I 179 (official, silver denarius, Rome mint), F, uneven dark toning, rough areas, off center, weight 2.431 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, unofficial mint, c. 109 - 105 B.C.; obversehead of Roma left in winged helmet, ornamented with griffinhead, peaked visor in three pieces, wearing single drop earring and necklace, X behind and second X below chin; reverseVictory in biga right, raising wreath in extended right hand, reins in left hand, L FLAMINI below, CILO in exergue; $38.00 (€32.30) ON RESERVE
Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.
The quantity of PAX coinage issued by Carausius probably exceeded the entire output of all his other types combined. The type was an appeal by the usurper Carausius for peace with the "official" emperors. Diocletian and Maximian did not recognize Carausius as emperor, nor did they reciprocate his desire for peace. RA73909. Billonantoninianus, cf. Webb Carausius 128; Croydon Hoard 63; King Unmarked 31; Burton Latimer 59; Bicester Hoard -, aF, crude, reverselegend not fully struck, corrosion, chips in patina, weight 3.872 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 225o, unofficial mint, obverse IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right; reversePAX AVG (or similar, blundered), Pax standing facing, head left, raising branch (or wreath?) in right hand, long scepter (or spear?) vertical in left hand, no control or mintmarks; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; $36.00 (€30.60)
Cahn, H. "EIDibus MARtiis" in QT 18 (1989), pp. 229-231, 9a, 20a, and 25b.
Campbell, W. Greek and Roman Plated Coins. ANSNNM 75. (New York, 1933).
Crawford, M. "Plated Coins - False Coins" in NC 1968, pp. 55-59, pl. xiv.
Crawford, M. Roman Republican Coinage. (Cambridge, 1974), vol I., pp. 560-565, vol II, p. 570.
Davis, P. "Dacian and Celtic Imitations of Republican Denarii" in The Celator 18-4, April 2004, pp. 6-16.
Davis, P. "Dacian Imitations of Roman Republican Denarii" in Apvlvm Number XLIII/1. (2006).
Davis, P. Imitations of Roman Republican Denarii, website: http://rrimitations.ancients.info/.
Davis, P. & E. Paunov. "Imitations of Republican Denarii from Moesia and Thrace" in Studies Prokopov. (2012).
Lawrence, L. "On a Hoard of Plated Roman Denarii" in NC 1940, pp. 185-189.
Popović, Petar. "Hoard of imitations of the Roman Republican denars from the Belgrade National Museum" in Numizmatikai Közlöny 1974, pp. 7-13 & pl. 1.
Ranieri, E. La monetazione di Ravenna antica dal V all' VIII secolo: impero romano e bizantino, regno ostrogoto e langobardo. (Bologna, 2006).
Southerland, C. "'Carausius II', 'Censeris', and the Barbarous Fel. Temp. Reparatio Overstrikes" in NC 1945.
Sydenham, E. "On Roman Plated Coins" in NC 1940, pp. 190-202.
Sydenham, E. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. (London, 1927 1952). pl. xliii-xliv.
Vasic, M. "A IVth and Vth Centuries Hoard of Roman coins and imitations in the collection of the National Museum in Belgrade" in Sirmium VIII, p. 128-129, 6-19.
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