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The Islands of the Aegaean Sea (Cyclades and Sporades)

Wroth, BMC Crete and Aegean Islands
Imhoof, Griechische Mnzen
Babelon, Trait, pt. 2, vol. i, chap. x.

The Cyclades is a Greek island group in the Aegean Sea, southeast of the mainland. It centers on the uninhabited island of Delos, considered the birthplace of Apollo, and home to some of Greeces most important archaeological ruins. The largest island of the Cyclades is Naxos. Many of the islands are popular holiday destinations, known for their beaches, ancient sites, rugged landscapes and traditional blue-and-white stucco towns overlooking the sea.

The earliest coins of the Cyclades and Sporades belong to the seventh and sixth centuries B.C., and are evidently modeled on the money of Aegina. All these insular coinages belong to an age that is anterior to the commencement of coinage in Crete. Aegina, and not Crete, must therefore be regarded as the cradle of the archaic silver money of all the central portion of the Aegean Sea, with its numerous islands and once teeming maritime population.

The prevailing weight-standard of the earliest coins is the Aeginetic, the stater being a didrachm. At Melos, the most archaic coins are of Phoenician weight; at Delosif the attribution be correctwe find a Euboic didrachm. From the fourth century till circ. B.C. 200 the chief standards employed are the Rhodian or Ptolemaic, the Rhodian reduced, and the reduced Attic. From about B.C. 200 the silver currency was probably chiefly furnished by the new Athenian silver money and by the coins of Crete, etc. In many of the less important islands coinage does not begin till c. B.C. 300, and in some cases consists entirely of bronze. In B.C. 308 Ptolemy liberated Andros from the Macedonian garrison, and, soon after, the Cyclades passed under the mild rule of the Ptolemies, who appear to have allowed them to retain a modified autonomy and the right of coining their own money.

Uncertain archaic coins of the Aegean Islands (?).

Many extant specimens of the archaic coinages of the Islands and of Aegina come from finds in Melos (Borrell, N. C., vi. 134), from the great hoard of 760 pieces discovered in Thera (see Wroth, The Santorin Find of 1821 in N. C., 1884, p. 269), and from a hoard discovered about 1890 (Greenwell, N. C., 1890, p. 13: see also Brndsteds Reisen, Paris, 1826 and 1830). These finds consisted of a great variety of specimens, the majority of which are doubtless of the Islands, though others, with more or less certainty, may be assigned to Western Asia Minor. The following have some claim to be regarded as early coinages of the Islands, judging by provenance and weight, but it should be observed that they furnish a great number of different types and may ultimately prove to be the coinages of some other parts of the Greek world.

Forepart of lion l. looking back. Rev. Rude incuse square, or sometimes star in incuse square Aeginetic stater. N. C., 1884, p. 272 f. Santorin find; a specimen found in Melos is inscribed on obv. ΟVΑ or VΑΟ (?): see N. C., l. c. and infra under Miletus; cf. Babelon, Trait, pt. 2, i. p. 1290, among Uncertain of Asia Minor'.

Two dolphins swimming l. and r. Rev. Inc. sq. of several compartments. Aeginetic stater. N. C., 1884, p. 277; cf. Svoronos, cited by Imhoof, N. C., 1895, p. 273, sometimes assigned to Argos. Regling (Z. f. N., xxv. p. 39) preferably attributes them to Thera; cf. Babelon, Trait, pt. 2, i. p. 1323. (Cf. the Aeginetic stater with obv. Two dolphins, both swimming r. (Greenwell, N. C., 1890, p. 16); perhaps Carian (Regling, op. cit., p. 42).

Naked youth riding on dolphin. Rev. Inc. sq. Aeginetic drachm, 92 grs. See Head, B. M. C., Caria, p. lix; Babelon, Trait, pt. 2, i. p. 1274; Svoronos (Journ. int., 1900, p. 59) attributes it to Syros.

Frog or Toad. Rev. Rude inc. sq. Aeginetic stater, drachm, and obol. N. C., 1898, p. 120; Svoronos (Journ. Int., i. p. 205) attributes these coins to Seriphos; cf. Babelon, Trait, pt. 2, i. p. 1303.

Head of Satyr r. with pointed beard and pointed ear. Rev. Rude inc. sq. Phoenician stater, 211 grs. N. C., 1884, p. 280, Santorin find; Babelon, Trait, pt. 2, i. No. 1949, Naxos'.

Boar's head r. Rev. Rude inc. sq. Phoenician stater, 223 grs.; also stater, 64 grs. See N. C., 1884, p. 276 f., Santorin find.

Eagle flying r. Rev. Inc. sq. of several compartments. Phoenician stater, 219 grs. See Dressel, Z. f. N., xxii. p. 248, No. 63.

Bee. Rev. Inc. sq. divided diagonally. Phoenician stater, 53 grs. Rev. num., 1861, p. 419; Imhoof, G. M., p. 543, attributes it to Anaphe ?'.

Two bunches of grapes. Rev. Inc. sq. of several compartments. R. N., 1861, p. 418. 157 grs. (broken; originally abt. 180 grs. ?). Babelon, op. cit., No. 1859.

Amorgos. The island of Amorgos, south-east of Naxos, contained on its western coast three cities, Aegiale in the north, Minoa in the middle, and Arcesine in the south. Down perhaps to the latter part of the fourth century these towns, as is evident from the following coins and from inscriptions, formed a single political community, but afterwards they appear each as an independent state.

Before circ. B.C. 300.
Star and crescent. ΑΜΟ Two thyrsi crossed.
.65
Head of Asklepios.      Bee.
.4
Cupping vessel, σικυα.      Id.
.5

Aegiale, in Amorgos :

After circ. B.C. 300.
Head of Zeus or Asklepios.
[B. M. Cat., Pl. XX. 1.]
ΑΙΓΙ Goat-legged Pan seated with legs crossed, playing syrinx.
AR 32 grs.
Goat-legged Pan seated or standing, or head of Zeus (or Asklepios) laureate. ΑΙΓΙ, ΑΙ Cupping vessel; on several specimens, the letter Δ beneath.
.65
Head of Artemis. ΑΙ Cupping vessel [Brit. Mus.]
.5
Head of Athena. ΑΙΓΙ Owl.
.65
Turreted female head.      Lions head and neck
.5

Imperial(B. M. C., p. xlvii.) Domna, Caracalla. Inscr., ΕΓΙΑΛΕΩΝ. Demeter in quadriga holding torches; Dionysos standing; Hera and Apollo. Mag., Archon, Prytanis.

Arcesine, in Amorgos :

After circ. B.C. 300.
Head of Athena. ΑΡΚ Ram standing.
.7 and .5
Id. ΑΡΚΕ Amphora.
.55
Head of young Dionysos.      Kantharos and thyrsos.
.75
Id.      Kantharos [Brit. Mus.]
.55

Minoa, in Amorgos :

After circ. B.C. 300.
Head of bearded Dionysos. ΜΙΝΩ Kantharos.
.65

ImperialAnt. Pius to J. Paula and J. Maesa. Inscr., ΜΙΝΟΗΤΩΝ Cultus-statue of Hera (N. Z., 1891, p. 4); Apollo Kitharoedos. Mag., Archon.

On the coins of Amorgos see P. Lambros, Νομισματα της νησου Αμοργου Athens, 1870, and P. Becker in Num. Zeit., ii. p. 349.

Anaphe, a small island east of Thera, with a cultus of Apollo Αιγλαετης (Strab. x. 484).

After circ. B.C. 300.
Head of Apollo Aegletes, facing. ΑΝ or ΑΝΑ Two-handled vase, above which, bee.
.65

Andros, the largest and most northerly of the Cyclades. The chief divinity of the island was Dionysos, within whose sanctuary was a fountain which ran with wine every year during the festival of the god (Paus. vi. 26). The coinage of certain attribution dates from circ. B.C. 308, when Andros was freed by Ptolemy from its Macedonian garrison. For descriptions of the coins see Paschales in Journ. Int., i. p. 299 f.

Seventh and Sixth centuries B.C. Aeginetic Standard.
Amphora.
[Babelon, Trait, pt. 2, i. p. 1275 f.]
Incuse square divided into triangular compartments.
AR Stater, 186 grs., Dr., Dr., Obol, Tritemorion.

Imhoof (Gr. M., p. 537) regards these as the earliest coins of Carthaea in Ceos, and the attribution to Andros can hardly be accepted as certain.

After circ. B.C. 308 to Roman times. Ptolemaic or Rhodian Standard.
Head of young Dionysos; behind, usually, Φ.
[N. C., 1902, p. 328, No. 16.]
ΑΝΔΡΙ Panther [Hirsch, Auct.-Cat., xiii (1905), No. 3110, Pl. XXXV].
AR wt. 137 and 52-50 grs.
Head of young Dionysos.
[Paschales, p. 316, No. 32.]
ΑΝΔΡlΩΝ Dionysos (?) in short chiton standing, sacrificing and holding thyrsos.
AR 100.6 grs.
Head of Apollo, laur.
[Paschales, p. 312, No. 20.]
ΑΝ Dionysos in long drapery standing, holding kantharos and thyrsos.
AR about 217 grs.

The bronze coins have usually heads of Dionysos, young or bearded, on the obverse, and on the reverse, Thyrsos, Amphora, or Kantharos. Inscr., ΑΝΔΡΙ.

ImperialHadrian to Geta. Inscr., ΑΝΔΡΙWΝ Dionysos; Simulacrum resembling Artemis of Ephesus. Also quasi-autonomous (some countermarked with head of Trajan); types, Dionysos, Apollo Kitharoedos.

Ceos. In addition to the coins of the three cities of Ceos, viz. Carthaea, Coressia, and Iulis, there are bronze coins of the second and first centuries B.C., struck (probably at Iulis) in the name of the island (cf. Imhoof, Griech. M., p. 536).

Bearded head, laur. (Aristaeos). ΚΕΙ Forepart of dog encircled by rays (Seirios).
.7-.55
Youthful head, laur. (Apollo or Aristaeos ?). Similar type.
.5

With the island of Ceos, Aristaeos was very closely connected. At a time when it was suffering from drought and pestilence he appeared and sacrificed to Zeus Ikmaios, who caused refreshing breezes to blow for forty days. Aristaeos also instituted propitiatory sacrifices to the dog-star Seirios, and instructed the Cean Nymphs in bee-keeping and other arts. It is to Aristaeos that the star, the bee, and Seirios the dog encircled by rays make allusion on the coins of Ceos. In this island he was assimilated to Zeus and worshiped as Ζευς Αρισταιος (BMC Crete p. xlviii). The bearded head on the coins may be called Aristaeos represented like Zeus. The youthful head is perhaps rather that of Apollo a god much worshiped in the islandthan a representation of Aristaeos as a youth.

Carthaea, on the south-east coast of Ceos. The standard of its early coins, as elsewhere in the Aegean Islands, is the Aeginetic.

Circ. B.C. 600 (or earlier) to 480. Aeginetic Standard.
Amphora, beside which, dolphin.
[G. M., p. 537, Nos. 22, 23; cf. Andros, supra.]
Incuse square, of mill-sail pattern.
AR Stater and divisions.
Amphora between dolphin and grapes.
[G. M., p. 538; Babelon, Trait, pt. 2, i. p. 1282.]
Incuse square, divided into four divisions, in three of which the letters ΚΑΡ.
AR Stater (Paris), and divisions uninscribed.

Fourth century B.C. (?).
Amphora, beside which, dolphin. ΚΑΡ Grapes [G. M., p. 538, No. 26].
.5

After circ. B.C. 300. Attic Standard reduced (?).
Bearded head (Aristaeos). [Leake, Num Hell., Ins. Gr., p. 6.] ΚΑΡΘΑΙ Forepart of dog encircled by rays (Seirios); in field, ΑΝ.
AR 117.8 grs.
Youthful head, laureate (Apollo or Aristaeos ?). ΚΑΡΘΑΙ or ΚΑΡΘΑ Similar type; symbol, bee.
.8-.65
Head of young Dionysos. ΚΑΡΘΑ Grapes; in field, star.
.75

Coressia, in early times an independent city of Ceos, but in Strabo's day only the harbor of Iulis.

Circ. B.C. 600 (or earlier) to 480. Aeginetic Standard.
Q Sepia. [G. M., p. 538, No. 27.] Incuse square divided into four triangular compartments.
AR Stater.


FIG. 255.

cuttlefish, beside which, dolphin.
[G. M., pp. 538, 539; Babelon, Trait, Pl. LXI.]
Incuse square of mill-sail pattern.
AR Stater (Fig. 255), Dr., Dr., Obol.
Dolphin, sometimes with Q or QΟ.
[G. M., p. 539.]
Incuse square, on plain surface.
AR obol.
Dolphin, sometimes with Q. K in incuse square [G. M., p. 539, 34 and 35].
AR wt. circ. 5 grs.

After circ. B.C. 300.
Sepia (beside which, sometimes, dolphin). ΚΟ Grapes.
.45
Head of Apollo Smintheus, laur. (or Aristaeos ?). ΚΟΡΗ Grapes; in field, bee.
.75
Id.      Bee.
.8
Bearded head (Aristaeos).      Star.
.5

Iulis stood on a height in the interior of Ceos and was the most important city of the island.

Circ. B.C. 600 (or earlier) to B.C. 480. Aeginetic Standard.
Grapes. Incuse square variously divided.
AR Stater [Berlin Mus.; G. M., p. 540, No. 38; cf. N. C., 1893, p. 87]; Dr., and small divisions [G. M., p. 540 f.].
Grapes; beside which, dolphin. Incuse square variously divided [G. M., p. 541, No. 45, etc.]
AR Stater, Dr., Drachm, etc.
Grapes. Stern of ship within slight incuse square [Brit. Mus. (= G. M., p. 542, No. 55; Babelon, Trait, pt. 2, i. No. 1908)].
AR 36.1 grs.

After Circ. B.C. 300.
Bearded head r., laureate (Aristaeos) ΙΟΥ Bee; in field, dogs head and Η: circular incuse [N. C., 1891, p. 129, No. 25].
AR 121.7 grs. (Attic Didrachm ?).
Head of Apollo, laureate ΙΟΥ Bee.
.7-.5
Head of Dionysos bearded.      Grapes.
.4
Head of Artemis.      Bee within wreath.
.45-.35
Id. ΙΟΥΛΙΕ Grapes.
.65
Bearded head, laureate (Aristaeos).     Bee.
.6-.5
Bee. Star.
.45-.35

Cimolos, a small island close to Melos.

After circ. B.C. 300.
Head of Athena. ΚΙΜΩΛΙ Trident [Mionet ii. p. 315, No. 27].
.7

Cythnos, between Ceos and Seriphos.

Second and First centuries B.C.
Head of Apollo. ΚΥ, ΚΥΘΝ Lyre.
.7
Female head. ΚΥ Grapes.
.6
Head of Apollo. ΚΥ, ΚΥΘΝΙ Rose.
.6-.5
Female head (Artemis ?). ΚΥ, ΚΥΘΝ Rose.
.35
Dog r. ΚΥ Rose.
.45-.35

Delos. It would seem likely that during the early period of its independence, before the Persian Wars, Delos issued money of the same fabric and weight (Aeginetic) as that of Ceos, Paros, and other island-neighbors. No such pieces have, however, been identified. The coins inscribed Δ, type lyre, described below, though of Euboc weight, have a plausible claim to be considered the earliest known issues of the island. From the later coins it is certain that the lyre was a distinctive Delian coin-type. The swan, and the palm-tree, also found on coins of the island, are well-known to have been sacred to Apollo. Leto gave birth to Apollo and Artemis under the shadow of a palm-tree, and Nikias the Athenian dedicated in the island a palm-tree of bronze (B. M. C., p. xlvi). Cf. also Macdonald, Coin Types, p. 62.

From B.C. 478 down to circ. B.C. 308 (Pauly-Wissowa, Delos, p. 2482) Delos was more or less under the control of Athens, and coinage probably ceased; but from circ. B.C. 308 down to circ. B.C. 87 there is an issue of silver and bronze. During the second and first centuries Delos was a trading center of predominant importance.

Sixth century B.C. to circ. B.C. 478.
Lyre of seven strings, above which Δ. [Weber Coll., N. C., 1892, p. 201, Nos. 31, 32; cf. B. M. Guide, i. A. 22, without Δ; Babelon, Trait, pt. 2, i. p. 1299 f.] Incuse square divided into eight compartments, or divided by broad bands into four compartments.
AR Euboic Didrachm (wt. 125.6, 122.6 grs.).
Lyre.
[N. C., 1900, p. 16, No. 19; Babelon, op. cit., No. 1936.]
ΙΛΗΔ between spokes of wheel [Brit. Mus.; Paris].
AR Tritemorion.

Circ. B.C. 308 to B.C. 87. Rhodian or Ptolemaic Standard.
Head of Apollo l. Lyre within slight incuse square [Brit. Mus.]
AR Dr., 21.9 grs
Head of Apollo r. ΔΗ Lyre [B. M. C., Nos. 5 and 6].
.4
Head of Apollo (of somewhat later style than the two preceding coins). ΔΗ Palm-tree, in which, swan seated [Brit. Mus.; N. C., 1900, p. 287, No. 18, and Hirsch, Auction-Catalog, xiii. No. 3148, Pl. XXXV].
AR Dr., 47 grs. and Dr.
Head of Apollo. ΔΗ Palm-tree.
.7
Head of Artemis. ΔΗ Palm-tree, in which, swan.
.45
Head of Apollo. ΔΗ Lyre.
.65-.4

Bronze coins, usually with obv. Head of Apollo, rev. ΑΘΕ Owl on amphora; Lyre; Tripod, etc., are found in Delos, and were probably the coinage of the Athenian Kleruchs in the island from B.C. 166 (Khler, Mittheil. d. deutsch. arch. Inst. (Athens), vi. 238; Journ. int. num., 1900, p. 51). For other coins struck by the Athenians in Delos see Athens, supra, pp. 387 sqq.

Gyaros was little more than a barren rock and was a place of banishment under the earlier Roman emperors.

First century B.C. (or Imperial Times ?).
Head of Artemis with quiver. ΓΥΑΡΙΩΝ Quiver with strap [B. M. C., p. 100].
.5
Head of Artemis.
[N. C., v. (1843), p. 176, No. 2.]
ΓΥΑΡΙΩΝ Stag standing; in front, ear of barley.
.55

Ios, north of Thera, asserted the possession of the burial-place of Homer, and claimed that his mother was a native of the island.

Circ. B.C. 300 to First century B.C. Ptolemaic or Rhodian Standard.
ΟΜΗΡΟΥ Head of Homer bound with taenia (of good style, c. B.C. 300, or somewhat earlier). ΙΗΤΩΝ within laurel-wreath [Berlin Mus.; Das Knigl. Mnzkabinet, No. 166; Imhoof, Portrtkpfe, Pl. VIII. 24].
AR Didrachm 105 grs. and Dr. 54 grs.
Similar (various countermarks on obv. and rev.). ΙΗΤΩΝ Athena hurling spear; in front, palm-tree.
.85-.6
Similar. ΙΗΤΩΝ or ΙΗΤ Palm-tree.
.55-.45

ImperialTrajanCommodus (Annali, 1833, p. 264, cf. p. 267); also quasi-autonomous. Inscr., ΙΗΤΩΝ. Types as on the pre-Imperial series.

Melos. This important island, first colonized from Phoenicia, and at a later period Hellenized by Dorians, struck coins on the Phoenician standard, which must have survived in Melos from remote times. The type is at first a ewer, but this was afterwards, and permanently, superseded by the pomegranate, μηλον (Doric μαλον), a canting device or type parlant.

The important hoard of Melian staters referred to supra, p. 486 n., has recently been fully described by M. R. Jameson in Rev. Num., 1909, pp. 188 ff. It consisted of some 79 staters of the Phoenician standard (circ. 220 grs.), exhibiting no less than 31 different reverse types. With the single exception of an oenochoe (op. cit., No. 26), the obverse type from first to last is the pomegranate, or rather quince (μηλον), the type parlant of the island. The inscription usually, but not always, present, in full or abbreviated, on the reverse is ΑΛΙCΝ, ΑΛΙCΝ, and later ΜΑΛΙΟΝ. The reverse types comprise, in addition to those already mentioned supra, p. 486, the following :Four-pronged fork; Wasp on bunch of grapes; Triskeles; Pentagram; Murex (?); Fig-leaf; Two caps of Kabeiri, one on top of the other; Gorgoneion; Four grains of corn in star-form, with ivy-leaves between them; Amphora; etc.

The coins in this Find seem to range from circ. B.C. 500 or later to B.C. 416, the date of the conquest of Melos by Athens, and they prove that, during this period, the island must have been, at any rate within its own territory, the most wealthy of all the Aegean islands. The survival, down to the middle of the fifth century at least, of the Phoenician forms of the letters Μ ( and ) and Ο (C), and of the Phoenician weight-standard, indicate that the influence of the original Phoenician settlers was still strong in spite of the later Dorian immigration. The extraordinary variety of the types, and the fact that no specimens have been found outside Melos, lead us to suppose that their circulation was mainly local, and that they represent successive issues probably struck on the occasions of recurrent religious festivals, chiefly perhaps connected with the worship of the Phoenician Kabeiri, of the Libyan Ammon (cf. the Rams heads and the Pentagram, his symbol on coins of Pitane, supra, p. 537), and of Aristaeos (Grapes, corn-grains, stars, etc.); cf. Cyrene, p. 865.

Sixth century B.C. Phoenician Standard.
ΜΑΛΙ Ewer (οινοχοη or προχους).
[G. M., p. 543, No. 58; cf. 59 and 60: see also Babelon, Trait, pt. 2, i. p. 1317.]
Incuse square divided by diagonal bands.
AR Stater 223 grs.

Circ. B.C. 500, and later. Phoenician Standard.
Pomegranate with leaves.
[Hunter Cat., ii. p. 206, Nos. 1, 2, 4; Babelon, op. cit., p. 1321.]
ΜΑ Incuse square divided by diagonal bands.
AR Stater, 220 grs.
Also AR Hemiobol.
ΜΑΛΙ Id. [Hunter, ib., No. 3.] Incuse square as before; border of dots.
AR Stater, 221.7 grs.
ΙΛΑΜ Id. [G. M., p. 546, No. 61.] ΜΑ Id.
AR Stater, about 220 grs. [1]

In B.C. 416 the city of Melos was taken by the Athenians, and its male inhabitants put to the sword. A remnant of the population was restored by Lysander after the fall of Athens, and coinage recommenced c. B.C. 400.

1 For other Melian staters of the fifth century B.C. of the Phoenician standard, reading ΑΛΙCN, ΑΛΙ, ΜΑΛΙ, &c., Obv. Pomegranate; rev. Incuse sq. containing rings; Wheel; Square of eight triangles; Stellate flower; Three dolphins swimming round omphalos (?); Crescent; Rams head; Young male head in conical helmet, &c.; see Berl. Mnzkab., No. 8 (this coin uninscribed), and Rev. Num. 1908, pp. 301 fr.

Circ. B.C. 400-300. Rhodian Standard (full weight).
Pomegranate. [G. M., p. 546, No. 62.] ΜΑΛΙ Trident.
AR Didr. 114 grs.
Id. ΜΑΛΙ Kantharos.
AR Didr. 123 grs.
Id. [G. M., p. 547, No. 64.] ΜΑ Id.
AR Didr. 115 grs.
Id. [G. M., p. 547, No. 65.] ΜΑ Rams head l.
AR Didr. 114 grs.
Id.
[Paris, R. N., 1892, p. 115, No. 9.]
Spear-head.
AR Dr. 60 grs.
Id.
[Paris, R. N., 1892, p. 115, No. 10.]
ΜΑ Eagle on rock; in field, crescent.
AR Dr. 54 grs.
Id. [B. M. C.] Naked archer shooting.
AR Dr. 32 grs.

with obv. Pomegranate, rev. Naked archer, Helmet, Pecten, Kantharos, &c.

Circ. B.C. 300 to First century B.C.
Head of Athena in crested Corinthian helmet. [Imhoof, M. G., p. 224.] ΜΑΛΙΩΝ Apollo in long chiton, enthroned, playing lyre. Magistrates, ΝΕΑΝΘΗΣ, ΣΩΣΑΡΧΟ(Σ).
AR Tetradrachm 227-220 grs.
Id. [Brit. Mus.] ΜΑΛΙΩΝ Pomegranate. Mag., ΔΕΞΙΚΡΑΤΗΣ; whole in wreath.
AR Dr. 59 grs.
Pomegranate. [Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 225, No. 78.] ΜΗΛΙΩΝ Athena hurling fulmen. Mag., ΟΛΥΜΠΙΧΟΣ.
AR Didrachm 101 grs.

with obv. Pomegranate, rev. Kantharos, Amphora, Cornucopia and pilei of Dioskuri, Athena, Lyre, &c.

ImperialCommodus, ΕΠΙ ΑΡΧ ΦΛ ΕΠΑΦΡΟΔΙΤΟV within wreath (cf. C. I. G., No. 2427).

Also many quasi-autonomous of Imperial times (Commodus, &c.). Sizes 1.05-.45. Inscr., ΜΗΛΙΩΝ. Obv. Head of Boule; Head of Athena; Pomegranate; Tyche (ΤVΧΗ) leaning on column holding child (Hunter Cat., ii. p. 207; cf. Imhoof, Gr. M., p. 547; cf. Melian relief, J. H. S., 1898, p. 60 f.). Rev. Wreath; Owl; Simulacrum of Athena with spear and shield; cf. Melian relief, Mittheil. deutsch. arch. Inst., xv. 249.

Mag. ΕΠΙ ΤΙ ΠΑΝΚΛΕΟC ΤΟ Γ. Mark of Value, ΔΡΑΧΜΗ. Wt. 183 and 231 grs.

Myconos, a bare and rocky little island adjacent on the east to Delos. It was not altogether unfruitful, and its wine was of some note (Plin. N. H. xiv. 7, 75). Its coinage is described by Svoronos, Bull. corr. hell., xvii, p. 455 f.

All the coins are of bronze (sizes .7-.4) of the fourth century B.C. to first century B.C. Inscr., ΜΥ, ΜΥΚΟ, ΜΥΚΟΝΙWΝ. Obv. usually Head of bearded Dionysos in profile, or Head of youthful Dionysos, three-quarter to front: also Head of Demeter; Head of Poseidon (rev. Dolphin). Rev. usually Grapes and Corn-grain: also corn-stalk with two ears; Ivy-wreath. ImperialAugustus. ΜVΚΟΝΙWΝ, Dionysos standing. A religious decree of Myconos of the first century B.C. (Michel, Recueil, No. 714) enumerates among its divinities Dionysos Ληνευς and Βακχευς, Demeter Χλοη and Poseidon.

Naxos. One of the largest, richest, and most fertile of all the Cyclades. The god chiefly worshiped in this island was Dionysos. From the middle of the sixth century, especially under the tyrant Lygdamis, a contemporary of Pisistratus, down to the devastation of the island by the Persians in B.C. 490, Naxos was in the enjoyment of its greatest prosperity, and most of the neighboring islands were dependent upon it.

Circ. B.C. 600-490. Aeginetic Standard.


FIG. 256.

Kantharos, bound with ivy-wreath, and with a bunch of grapes hanging from each handle; above, an ivy-leaf. Rough incuse square, quartered (Fig. 256).
AR Stater 191 grs; also Stater. [E. F. Weber Sale (1908) 2230, Pl. XXX.]
Id. Id.

From B.C. 490, at first under the Persians and then under the Athenians, who settled five hundred Kleruchs in the island, Naxos struck no coins. The second series of Naxian coins begins after the fall of Athens B.C. 404.

Circ. B.C. 400-300. Rhodian Standard (full weight).
Head of bearded Dionysos, of fine style, crowned with ivy.
[B. M. C., Pl. XXV. 10.]
ΝΑΞΙΩΝ Kantharos; above, ivy-leaf. [Another type in E. F. Weber, Sale Cat., 2231].
AR Dr. 57 grs.
Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXV. 11.] ΝΑ Kantharos; above, grapes.
.45

Circ. B.C. 300 to Roman times. Rhodian Standard, reduced.
Head of bearded Dionysos, crowned with ivy. [Zeit. f. Num., i. 135, 136.] ΝΑΞΙ Krater and thyrsos. Magistrates, ΕΥΠΑ, AR Didr. 119 grs.; (Hirsch, Auct. Cat., xiii. 3162); ΛΕΩΚΡ, AR Didr. 103 grs.; ΚΡΗΘΕ, AR Didr. 112 grs.; ΚΑΛΛΙΝ (Mus. Nap.); ΧΑΡΟ, AR Didr. 117 grs. (N. C., 1890, p. 323); ΧΑΡΟΠΟΣ ΑΡΙΣΤΟΞΕΝΟΥ, AR Didr. 119 grs. [Photiades Cat., Pl. VIII, No. 1394], &c. Also AR Dr. 58 grs. Mag., ΞΕΝΟΔ, rev. type, Krater [Photiades No. 1396, now Brit. Mus.].
Id. ΝΑΞΙ Kantharos; above, grapes.
.65
Head of young Dionysos.
[B. M. C., Pl. XXV. 12, 13.]
    Tall krater and thyrsos.
.75
Id.      Grapes.
.65
Head of bearded Dionysos, wreathed. ΝΑΞΙ Archaic statue of Zeus naked, holding fulmen and eagle. Mag., ΜΗΧΑΝ [Photiades Cat., No. 1397].
AR Didrachm 114 grs.

At Naxos the Priest of Dionysos was the eponymous magistrate, and it is probably his name which appears on the coinage (C. I. G. 2265, l. 21).

ImperialAnt. Pius, Sept. Severus, Domna, and Geta. ΝΑΞΙ, ΝΑΞΙΩΝ. The Three Charites; Krater; bust of Dionysos, with magistrates name ЄΠΙ ΦΑΝ ΙΔΟC (Imhoof, Gr. u. rm. Mnzkunde, p. 277).

Paros, a large and important island west of Naxos, famous for its fine marble quarries, which were the chief source of its wealth.

Circ. B.C. 600-480. Aeginetic Standard.


FIG. 257.

Goat kneeling on one knee, with head reverted; beneath, dolphin. Incuse square, divided into six triangular parts, some deeply indented (Fig. 257).
AR Stater.

Fifth century B.C., early. Aeginetic Standard.
Goat kneeling r. Incuse square quartered [Imhoof KM, ii. p. 453; B. M. C., Lycaonia, p. 51, Nos. 2-4].
AR Drachm.
ΠΑ, ΠΑΡΙ Goat looking back; one foreleg bent. Two goats heads facing one another, butting [N. C., 1899, Pl. VIII. 1].
AR 18 grs.

Paros was subject to Athens down to the end of the fifth century, and in B.C. 378 she joined the second Athenian alliance; but, apparently in B.C. 357, again separated herself from the Confederation, in conjunction with the Chians, with whom then and afterwards the Parians were in close relations (Bursian, Geog., ii. 486).

Fourth century B.C. Rhodian Standard (full weight).
Goat standing. ΠΑ Ear of corn.
AR Dr. 29 grs.
ΠΑΡ Goat. [B. M. C., Pl. XXVI 3.] Corn-wreath.
AR Dr. 29 grs.
Goat. [Ibid., Pl. XXVI. 4.] ΠΑ Ear of corn.
.45

Third and Second centuries B.C. Rhodian Standard.


FIG. 258.

Head of Kore or Artemis (?), her hair bound thrice round with a ribbon (Fig. 258). ΠΑΡΙ Goat standing or reclining. Magistrates, ΑΝΑΞΙΚ.., ΑΚΟΥ, ΑΡΙΣΤΗ, ΚΤΗΣΙ, ΠΕΙΣΗΝ, ΠΡΑΞΟΣ, ΦΙΛΑΝ [Z. f. N., vii. p. 18].
AR Didr. 118 grs. and .75
Veiled head of Demeter, crowned with corn. [B. M. Guide, Pl. LVI. 36.] ΠΑΡΙ in ivy-wreath.
AR Didr.
Same head, without veil.     Id.
AR Dr.
Id. [B. M. C., Pl. XXVI. 8.]     Id. Magistrates, ΕΥΚΤΗ, Ε ΑΚΟΥ, ΕΚΛΕΟ, ΑΝΤΙΛ, ΘΟΥΡΙ, ΧΑΙΡΙ.
AR Dr. 58 grs.
Head of young Dionysos, ivy-crowned.
[B. M. Guide, Pl. LVI. 35.]
ΠΑΡlΩΝ Demeter seated on corn measure, holding corn and sceptre. Magistrates, ΑΡΙΣΤΟΔΗΜ[ΟΣ], ΣΙΛΗΝΟΣ.
AR Tetradrachm 240 grs.
Id. [Z. f. N., xxi. 262.] ΠΑΡΙΩΝ The poet Archilochus seated playing cithara. Magistrate ΠΕΙΣΙΒ, ΑΝΑΞΙΚ.
AR Tetradrachm. 239 grs.

Also , some apparently of first century B.C. Obv. Head of Demeter, rev. ΠΑΡΙ Goat standing or reclining. Obv. Female head in stephane, rev. ΠΑΡΙ Cornucopia.

The chief cultus of Paros was that of Demeter Thesmophoros (Pauly-Wissowa, Demeter, p. 2722 f.). ImperialM. Aurelius and Faustina, jun. Inscr., ΠΑΡΙΩΝ Bust of Athena. The three Charites.

Pholegandros, between Melos and Sicinos, said to pave been founded by Pholegandros, a son of Minos.

Second and First centuries B.C.
Young male head (Apollo ?).
[B. M. C., Pl. XXVII. 1.]
ΦΟΛΕ, ΦΟΛ[Ε]ΓΑ Rushing bull.
.8-.6

ImperialM. Aurelius. ΦΟΛΕΚΑΝΔΡΙΩΝ Bust of Athena (Hunter Cat., ii. p. 210, Pl. XLIV. 1).

Seriphos, between Cythnos and Siphnos, the home of Perseus and his mother Dana. Its coin-types all refer to the legend of that hero (cf. Paus. ii. 18; Strabo x. 487). For the archaic coins, type Frog, sometimes attributed to this island, see p. 480, supra, Uncertain.

Circ. B.C. 300-200.
Head of Perseus in winged helmet, surmounted by vultures head.
[B. M. C., Pl. XXVII. 2.]
ΣΕΡΙ Harpa.
.45

After circ. B.C. 200.
Head of Perseus. ΣΕΡΙ Perseus holding harpa and gorgoneion.
.5
Id. ΣΕ Gorgons head; beneath, harpa.
.7-.6
Id. ΣΕΡΙ Harpa.
.55
Gorgons head. CΕΡΕΙΦΙWΝ Perseus holding harpa.
.55
Head of Perseus.     Harpa.
.55

Sicinos, between Pholegandros and Ios.

After circ. B.C. 300.
Young male head. ΣΙΚΙ Grapes [Hunter Cat., Pl. XLIV. 2].
.75

Siphnos, south-east of Seriphos, famous in ancient times for its gold and silver mines, a tenth of the produce of which the Siphnians dedicated in their own treasury at Delphi (Paus. x. 11. 2).

The following (cf. also Babelon, Trait, pt. 2, i. p. 1307 f.) are archaic coins of the period during which the mines continued to be a source of immense wealth to the island.

Circ. B.C. 600-500. Aeginetic Standard.


FIG. 259.

Eagle flying. (Fig. 259.) Incuse square, divided into triangular compartments, of which some are deeply indented.
AR Stater and Drachm.

Fifth century B.C., early. Aeginetic and Attic Standards.
Head of Apollo of archaic style [cf. Z. f. N., xxiv. p. 70], hair rolled, and bound with plain cord.
[B. M. C., Pl. XXVII. 11.]
SΙΦ Eagle flying; in field, barley-corn (or leaf?); all in incuse square.
AR Aeginetic Stater.
Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXVII. 12.] SΙΦ Id.
AR Attic Drachm.
Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXVII. 13.]     Id.
AR 8 grs.

Fourth century B.C.
Head of Apollo, hair short. ΣΙΦ Eagle flying with serpent in beak; in field, barley-corn (or leaf?) [Brit. Mus. (N. C., 1888, p. 14; cf. AV Half-stater 66 grs., described by Dressel, Z. f. N., xxi. p. 216)] AR Attic Drachm.
Head of Artemis, hair rolled. ΣΙΦ Eagle flying with serpent in beak.
.65

The gods chiefly worshiped at Siphnos were Zeus Επιβηνιος, Apollo Εναγρος, and Artemis Εκβατηρια (Hesych. S. v.). ImperialGordian III Inscr., CΙΦΝΙWΝ. Athena standing. Also quasi-autonomous obv. Head of Athena or Roma, rev. Eagle.

Syros. This island was situate nearly in the center of the circle formed by the Cyclades. Of its history we know very little.

Third century to First century B.C.
Head of Hermes in petasos. ΣΥΡ Goat standing [Spinks Num. Circular, 1900, p. 3843; also wt. 12.9 grs. (N. Z., 1876, p. 9)].
AR Dr. 58 grs.
Head of bearded Pan, with goats horn and taenia. ΣΥΡΙ, ΣΥΡΙΩΝ Goat; often with barley-corn in front.
.7-.4

Circ. B.C. 200.
Head of Demeter, of late style, crowned with corn.
[Mion., Suppl., IV. Pl. XII. 2; Z. f. N., xxiv. p. 118.]
ΘΕΩΝ ΚΑΒΕΙΡΩΝ ΣΥΡΙΩΝ The two Kabeiri (identified with the Dioskuri), standing, naked, facing, each resting on spear, and surmounted by star; all in olive-wreath.
AR Reduced Attic Tetradrachm 246 grs.
Similar head, rude style. ΣΥΡ Two Kabeiri naked, facing.
.7
Caps of the Kabeiri, each surmounted by star. ΣΥΡΙ Panther running.
.45
Head of Hermes. ΣΥΡΙ Caduceus.
.55
Bee. ΣΥ Cap of one of the Kabeiri, surmounted by star.
.45
Head of Apollo. ΣΥΡΙ Goat lying, r.
.4

ImperialDomitian to Sept. Severus. Inscr., CΥΡΙΩΝ, CΥΡΙ ΚΑΒΙΡΩΝ, ΕΙCΙC CΥΡΙΩΝ, ΕΡΜΗC CΥΡΙΩΝ. TypesHeads of the Kabeiri with an ear of corn between them, and a Bee and a Star beneath. Bust or full-length figure of. Isis. Hermes, standing. On AE of Sept. Severus, ΑCCΑ ΗΜ Υ(συ) = 1 Assaria (Imhoof, G. M., p. 487).

Tenos, separated from the southern point of Andros by a channel one mile in breadth, was famous chiefly for its magnificent temple of Poseidon, much frequented by the people of the surrounding islands (Strab. x. 747).

B.C. 600 (or earlier) to B.C. 500. Aeginetic standard.

Bunch of grapes formed of three pendants. Rude incuse square [Hirsch Coll. (G. M., p. 548, No. 67; cf. N. C., 1895, p. 273; Babelon, Trait, pt. 2, i. p. 1298)].
AR Stater 186 grs.
Id. Id. [G. M., p. 548, Nos. 68, 69.]
AR Dr.; also At 6 grs.

Fourth century B.C. Attic Standard.


FIG. 260.
Head of Zeus Ammon, bearded and laureate. (Fig. 260.) ΤΗ Poseidon enthroned, holding dolphin and trident.
AR Tetradrachm. 254 grs.
Head of Zeus Ammon, bearded. ΤΗ Grapes.
AR Dr. 63.8 grs.

Circ. B.C. 300-200.
Rhodian Standard.
Head of Zeus Ammon, laureate, beardless.
[Imhoof, N. C., 1895, p. 274, No. 1; Pl. X. 9.]
ΤΗΝΙΩΝ Poseidon enthroned, holding dolphin and trident; in field, grapes [Berlin].
AR Tetradrachm 209 grs.
Id. [B. M. Guide, Pl. XXXII. 28.] ΤΗΝΙΩΝ Poseidon standing, holding dolphin and sceptre; grapes in field.
AR Didrachm 106 grs.
Id. [B. M. C., Pl. XXVIII. 16.] ΤΗΝΙ Grapes.
AR 35 grs.

On the bronze coins, which range in date from the fourth century to the second century, the following are the most frequent types: Head of Zeus Ammon, bearded or young Head of Poseidon, laureate. Dionysos, standing with thyrsos before altar. Rev., ΤΗ, ΤΗΝΙΩΝ. Grapes. Poseidon standing with trident, around which a dolphin twines, or holding dolphin and trident, Rose in the field. Trident and dolphins, Rose in the field. (See B. M. C., Pls. XXVIII, XXIX.)

The Rose, as an accessory symbol, may indicate an alliance with Rhodes, which at this time exercised a predominant influence in the Aegaean Sea. From Boeckh, C. I. G., 2334, it appears that the Tenian silver money did not usually exchange at par with the Rhodian, although it was struck on the same standard, the ordinary rate of exchange being 105 Tenian drachms against 100 Rhodian. This agio was due, it can hardly be doubted, to the prestige which attached to Rhodes as a great commercial state. In actual weight the Tenian drachms are fully equivalent, if not superior, to the contemporary Rhodian issues. See Mommsen, Mon. Rom., i. p. 51.

ImperialSabina to Sept. Severus. Inscr., ΤΗΝΙΩΝ. Types: Poseidon standing; Dionysos standing.

Thera, the modern Santorin, west of Anaphe and south of Ios, is an island formed by a submarine Volcano, the edge of the crater of which rises above the sea-level. It is said to have been first inhabited by Phoenicians, and to have been afterwards colonized from Sparta. It was the mother-city of Cyrene in Africa. Its archaic coinage is perhaps to be recognized in the seventh-century silver staters with two dolphins as type, described supra, p. 480, as Uncertain.

Fourth century B.C. to B.C. 200 or later.
Head of Apollo facing.
[B. M. C., Pl. XXIX. 13.]
ΘΗ Rushing bull; dolphins in ex. [Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 225, No. 80].
.7
Id. [N. C., 1890, 323; cf. AR (?), Hirsch, Auct.-Cat., xiii. 3192.] ΘΗ Three dolphins.
.6
Id. [Mon. gr., p. 225, No. 81.]      Forepart of bull.
.3
Head of Apollo, in profile.      Lyre.
.55
Head of Zeus.      Fulmen.
.6
Head of Hermes.      Caduceus.
.5
Female head. [Mon. gr., p. 225, No. 82.] ΘΗΡ Rushing bull.
.5

ImperialM. Aurelius to L. Verus. Inscr., ΘΗΡΑΙΩΝ or ΘΗΡΕΩΝ. Types: Apollo Kitharoedos; Naked archaic statue of Apollo radiate facing; Simulacrum or Term facing (B. M. C., Pl. XXIX. 17, 18).