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A Case of Counterfeits
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Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Denarii of Otho
Die Alignment 101
Dictionary of Roman Coins
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Edict on Prices
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The Evolving Ancient Coin Market
Facing Portrait of Augustus
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The Gallic Empire
Greek Coin Denominations
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Identifying Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary
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Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
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Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
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Satyrs and Nymphs
The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
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Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Who was Trajan Decius
Ancient Coins from Mysia in the Forum Ancient Coins shop
Arnold-Biucchi, C. “The Pergamene Mint under Lysimachos” in Studies Price.
Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (London, 1992 - ).
Davesne, A. & G. Le Rider. Le trésor de Meydancikkale. (Paris, 1989).
Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber, Vol. III, Part 1. (London, 1926).
Houghton, A., C. Lorber & O. Hoover. Seleucid Coins: A Comprehensive Catalog. (Lancaster, 2002 - 2008).
Klein, D. Sammlung von griechischen Kleinsilbermünzen und Bronzen. Nomismata 3. (Milano, 1999).
Kleiner, F.S. “Hoard Evidence and the Late Cistophori of Pergamum” in ANSMN 23 (1978).
Lindgren, H. & F. Kovacs. Ancient Bronze Coins of Asia Minor and the Levant. (San Mateo, 1985).
Lindgren, H. Lindgren III: Ancient Greek Bronze Coins. (Quarryville, 1993).
MacDonald, G. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the Hunterian Collection, University of Glasgow, Vol II: Greece, & Asia Minor. (Glasgow, 1901).
Mildenberg, L. & S. Hurter, eds. The Dewing Collection of Greek Coins. ACNAC 6. (New York, 1985).
Mionnet, T.E. Description de Médailles antiques grecques et romaines. (Paris, 1807-1837).
Müller, L. Die Münzen Des Thracishen Konigs Lysimacus. (Copenhagen, 1858).
Olcay, N. & H. Seyrig. Trésors monétaires séleucides. I: Le trésor de Mektepini en Phrygie. (Paris, 1965).
Pinder, M. Über die Cistophoren und über die kaiserlichen Silbermedaillond der Römischen Provinz Asien. (Berlin, 1856).
Price, M.J. The Coinage in the name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. (Zurich-London, 1991).
RPC Online - http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol. 2: Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sear, D. Greek Imperial Coins and Their Values. (London, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 4: Bosporus-Lesbos. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 4: Mysien-Ionien. (Berlin, 1989).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 1: Pontus, Paphlagonia, Bithynia, Mysia, Troas, Aiolis, Lesbos, Ionia. (Berlin, 1957).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, France, Bibliothèque Nationale, Cabinet des Médailles, Vol. 5: Mysia. (Paris, 2001).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, France, Bibliothèque National, Collection Jean et Marie Delepierre. (Paris, 1983).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain XII, The Hunterian Museum, Univ. of Glasgow, Part 1: Roman Provincial Coins: Spain-Kingdoms of Asia Minor. (Oxford, 2004).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey 1: The Muharrem Kayhan Collection. (Istanbul, 2002).
Thompson, M. Alexander’s Drachm Mints II: Lampsacus and Abydus. ANSNS 19 (New York, 1991).
Thompson, M. "The Mints of Lysimachus," in Essays Robinson.
Troxell, H.A. “Orontes, satrap of Mysia” in SNR 60 (1981).
von Fritze, H. Die antiken Münzen Mysiens, Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands Vol. IV. (Berlin, 1913).
Waggoner, N.M. Early Greek Coins from the Collection of Jonathan P. Rosen. ACNAC 5. (New York, 1983).
Westermark, U. Das Bildnis des Philetairos von Pergamon, Corpus der Munzpragung. (Stockholm, 1960).
Winzer, A. Antike portraitmünzen der Perser und Greichen aus vor-hellenistischer Zeit (Zeitraum ca. 510-322 v. Chr.). Die frühesten Portraits lebender Menschen: Von Dareios I. bis Alexander III. (March-Hugstetten, 2005).
Wroth, W. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Mysia. (London, 1892).
Adramyteum. A seaport at the head of the bay of Adramyteum, said to have been founded by Adramys, brother of Croesus. With the earliest coins of this town cf. those of Iolla, and some of the Satrapal Coins (Ionia, infra).
Head of Zeus.
[Cf. Imh., M. G., p. 246 f.]
ΑΔΡΑ or ΑΔΡΑΜΥ Forepart of
|Head of Apollo r. laureate with long hair.
[Hirsch, Auct. Cat. XIII, Pl. XXXVII. 3280.]
|ΑΔΡΑΜΥ ΤΗΝΩΝ Cup (kylix) with tall stem.
|Head of young Dionysos.
[N. C., 1894, p. 10.]
|ΑΔΡΑΜΥΤΗΝΩΝ in ivy-wreath. |
AR 23.4 grs.
|Head of Zeus.|| „ Eagle on fulmen. |
AR 50 grs.
|Head of Zeus, sometimes with magistrate’s name (cf. Imh., Gr. M., p. 608).|| „ Horseman. |
Æ Size .6
|Male head.||ΑΔΡΑ Owl. |
[Imh., Gr. M., p. 608.]
|ΑΔΡΑΜ Two owls with one head. |
Also cistophori (B.C. 133-67) with ΑΔΡ in monogram, and Æ of time of Mithradates Eupator of Pontus, obv. Head of Apollo, rev. ΑΔΡΑΜΥΤΗΝΩΝ Cornucopia between pilei of Dioskuri.
Imperial— Augustus to Gallienus; also quasi-autonomous. Magistrates: Strategos and Asiarch. Inscr., ΑΔΡΑΜΥΤΗΝΩΝ. Types: ΑΝΤΙΝΟΟC ΙΑΚΧΟC Head of Antinoüs, rev. ΓЄCΙΟC ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄ ΑΔΡΑΜΥΤΗΝΟΙC Seated figure in oriental cap (Adramys?); Zeus; Poseidon approaching Amymone; Persephone and cippus with vase of corn; Athena; Telesphoros; Euthenia. Alliance coins with Ephesus.
Apollonia ad Rhyndacum (Abulliont). On a small island of the lake Apolloniatis, through which the Rhyndacus flows before emptying itself into the Propontis. The town is rarely mentioned by ancient authors.
|Head of Demeter.
[Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 13.]
|ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΙΑΤΩΝ Two torches.
|Head of Apollo. [N. C., 1902, p. 328.]||ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΙΑΤΩΝ ΡΥΝ Lyre in
|Head of Artemis. [Imhoof-Blumer KM, l. c.]||ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΙΑΤΩΝ ΡΥΝΔΑ Torch.
|Head of Hermes. [Imhoof-Blumer KM, op. cit., p. 14.]|| „ Caduceus.
|Head of Zeus. [Imhoof-Blumer KM, op. cit., p. 14.]|| „ Fulmen.
Imperial—Domitian to Gallienus. Inscr., ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΙΑΤΩΝ ΠΡΟC ΡΥΝΔΑΚΩ often abbreviated; also ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΙΑΤΩΝ or abbreviated (BMC Mysia, p. 11; N. C., 1907, p. 440). Types: Chiefly Apolline; Artemis; Poseidon (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 15); Aphrodite (Imh., Gr. M., p. 610); Tyche; ΡΥΝΔΑΚΟC reclining.—As to provenance of coins, see N. C., 1906, p. 29; on types, Hirschfeld-Festschrift, p. 476.
|Head of Apollo. [N. C., 1905. p. 336; Corolla Num., p. 297.]||ΑΤΑΡ Serpent coiled. [Brit. Mus.]
AR Wt. 45 grs.
[Hirsch. Auct. Cat. XIII, 3287.]
|ΑΤΑΡΝ Serpent coiled.
Æ Size .3
|Head of Apollo.
[Cf. Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 15.]
|ΑΤΑΡ Forepart of horse, or horse;
symbol, serpent, etc.
Æ .7 - .4
|Forepart of horse; behind, coiled serpent.
[BMC Mysia, p. 14.]
|ΑΣΙΝΙΟΥ ΑΝΘΥΠΑΤΟΥ ΡΛΜΑΙΩΝ Caduceus.
Attaea (on site, see Imhoof-Blumer KM, pp. 16, 169). Imperial— Trajan to Caracalla: some quasi-autonomous. Inscr., ΑΤΤΑΙΤΩΝ, ΑΤΤΑЄΙΤΩΝ or ΑΤΤΑЄΤΩΝ. Types: Bust of ΑΗΜΟC; bust of ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΑΗΤΟC; ΤΥΧΗ ΠΟΑЄΩC; Asklepios; Zeus in temple; Naked hero, Zeus and child (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 18); Mountain-god reclining (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 18 f. = BMC Mysia, No. 8); Homonoia (N. C., 1900, p. 288); Caracalla crowned by Demos (Imh., Gr. M., p. 611, No. 163); River-god. Magistrates, Archon; Strategos; P. Metilius Secundus and C. Antius Quadratus, proconsuls of Asia under Trajan. Alliance coin with Ephesus (Mion. Suppl.).
Came, an unknown town sometimes assigned to Aeolis, but more probably, from the provenance of its coins, situated in Mysia (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 21; N. C., 1896, p. 94; cf. BMC Troas, etc., p. lxii; p. 102).—Imperial. Hadrian to Septimius Severus; also quasi-autonomous Inscr., ΚΑΜΗΝΩΝ. Types: Phallic term; Asklepios and Hygieia; Dionysos and archaic simulacrum (of Artemis ?); obv. Bust of Sarapis, rev. Cock. Magistrate. Strategos.
Cisthene. North of Atarneus. Autonomous bronze. Inscr., ΚΙΣ, ΚΙΣΘΗ or ΚΙΣΘΑ. Fourth century B.C. (Gr. M., p. 613). Bearded satrapal head, rev. Horseman. Æ .5. Third or second century B.C. Head of Demeter, rev. Horseman. Æ .7.
Cyzicus. The coinage of this city, which occupied a peninsula on the southern shore of the Propontis, begins in the seventh or sixth century, and consists principally of staters and hectae composed of electrum or pale gold. These coins of Cyzicus, together with the Persian darics, constituted the staple of the gold currency of the whole ancient world until such time as they were both superseded by the gold staters of Philip and Alexander the Great.
The Cyzicene mint appears to have possessed a practical monopoly of coining these staters, which were doubtless a source of no small profit to the city. They are frequently mentioned in Attic inscriptions between B.C. 445 and 404, as well as by writers, as stataerei Kuzikaenoi, chrusou stataerei Kuzikaenoi, chrusiou Kuzikaenou stataerei στατηρες Κυζικηνοι, χρυσου στατηρες Κυζιζηνοι, χρυσιου Κυζικηνου στατηρες, etc. (Head, Num. Chron., 1876, pp. 277 sqq.; cf. 1877, p. 277 f.). From Xenophon, Anab. v. 6. 23; vii. 3. 10, we learn that a Cyzicene a month was promised to the soldiers as an advance upon their ordinary pay, which seems to have been a daric a month (cf. Anab. i. 3. 21).
The value of the Cyzicene electrum stater in silver money cannot be
exactly determined (cf. however Head, BMC Ionia, p. xxviii f.); the probability is that it varied from time to time, and that it was differently estimated in different localities. All that we can be sure of is that it was of greater value than the gold daric of 130 grs. The weight of the Cyzicene stater is 254-248 grains; of the hecte (sixth), 42 grs., and of the twelfth, 21 grs. The stater contained a large alloy of silver, while the daric, on the other hand, was of pure gold.
As Kirchhoff (Corp. Inscr. Attic., p. 160) has pointed out, a didrachm of pure gold weighing 130 grs. was valued at Athens in B.C. 434 at 28 silver drachms. Now this happens to be the exact value which Demosthenes just a century later (c. Phorm. 34. 23) assigns to the Cyzicene staters, which continued to circulate for some long time after the Cyzicene mint had ceased to issue them. It would therefore appear that so long as Cyzicus retained her quasi-monopoly of coining chrusoi χρυσοι the value of the Cyzicene was considerably higher, and that it afterwards fell, in the age of Philip of Macedon, to the level of the gold stater of Philip.
The episaemon επισημον, or badge, of the city of Cyzicus was the tunny-fish, paelamus πηλαμυς, shoals of which were continually passing through the Propontis on their way from the Euxine to the Aegean sea (see Marquardt, Cyzicus, p. 35). This fish appears invariably on the electrum coinage of the town - on the oldest stater as the type, on later coins as an adjunct or lesser type in addition to the principal device, which latter, contrary to the usual practice, is at Cyzicus merely an exaggerated magisterial symbol, usurping the place of the main type, while the tunny, the real episaemon επισημον, is relegated to a subordinate position (cf. Maonald, Coin Types, p. 40; and J. H. S., 1904, p. 38). In some cases the main types of Cyzicene staters are identical with the badges of other cities, who may conceivably have ordered electrum staters to be struck for them at the Cyzicene mint. Cf. Weil, Das Münzmonopol Athens in Z. f. N., xxv. p. 58.
In the following lists the principal types of the stater are enumerated; many of these types occur also on the corresponding hectae. The reverse, even in the latest period, is always an incuse square divided into four quarters, as on Fig. 268. Except on some of the small coins of Period I the tunny is invariably present. For further details see Greenwell, Cyzicus (cited as G.); on the chronology, Wroth, BMC Mysia, p. xiv f.
Stater, 253 grs.; obv. Tunny with fillets attached, rev. Oblong incuse and smaller incuse containing scorpion (cf. Rev. Num., 1895, p. 31 f.). Also hectae and smaller divisions, chiefly with marine types, and with tunny as symbol:— Head of fish. Dolphin. Crab holding head of fish (stater and hecte, G. No. 158). Eagle’s head. Cock’s head. Two fish (stater, G. No. 161). Boar’s head holding tunny (stater, N. C., 1893. p. 83). Winged tunny (stater and hecte, N. C., 1893, p. 84).
Athena (Fig. 268). Gorgon-head (N. C., 1893, Pl. VII. 4). Young head on disk (Diskobolos ?, R. N., 1903, p. 423). Bearded head (G. No. 78). Beardless head in helmet facing (G. Pl. II. 7). Satyric mask (hecte). Young head in winged helmet (G. No. 73). Female head (G. No. 84). Young male head with curly hair (N. C., 1897, p. 256).
|FIG. 269.||FIG. 270.|
Nike (?) running. Herakles with club and bow. Triton (?). Satyr holding tunny (Fig. 269). Young male figure with knife. Young male figure with helmet and sword. Naked figure holding tunny. Winged male figure with tunny. Lion-headed male figure (Phobos ?, Fig. 270).
Sphinx with two bodies (hecte). Lion’s scalp. Head of lioness. Lion (Fig. 271). Lioness. Forepart of winged lioness. Rain. Forepart of winged boar. Winged boar. Pistrix. Cock (forepart). Chimaera. Winged bull. Griffin. Heads of lion and ram conjoined.
Zeus Ammon. Apollo. Athena. Dionysos. Herakles. Aktaeon. Young male head (Kyzikos ?, G. No. 80). Female head in sakkos (cf. Syra-
|FIG. 272.||FIG. 273.|
Zeus kneeling with eagle and sceptre. Poseidon kneeling. Poseidon on sea-horse. Triptolemos in serpent-car. Apollo shooting. Demeter holding torch. Gaia holding Erichthonios (Fig. 272). Kekrops with olive-branch. Infant Dionysos (G. No. 39). Satyr filling wine-cup (Fig. 273). Satyr drinking from amphora. Satyr(?) holding in each hand uncertain object (BMC Mysia, No. 68). Nereid on dolphin. Nike with aplustre. Nike flying (hecte). Herakles kneeling; seated; strangling lion; holding club and horn (N. C., 1896, p. 91). Infant Herakles with serpents (N. C., 1897, p. 255, hecte). Herakles and Iphikles. Orestes at Delphic omphalos. Harmodios and Aristogeiton. Taras (?) on dolphin. Youth on horseback (cf. Tarentum). Child holding tunny. Runner in armed foot-race. Helmeted youth examining arrow. Warrior kneeling with trumpet? (cf. R. N., 1901, p. 6). Odysseus slaying ram. Warrior protected by shield (G. No. 92). Seated Scythian with bow (G. No. 95). Europa on bull (R. N., 1901, p. 7).
Skylla. Centaur. Pegasos. Kerberos. Griffin. Forepart of man headed bull (cf. Gela). Man-headed bull (N. C., 1892, p. 96). Bull's head. Bull. Forepart of winged bull. Head of goat. Goat. Boar. Sow. Winged dog. Dog. Fox (B. M., hecte). Horse. Ass. Ram (G. Nos. 130-132). Eagle. Winged dolphin (hecte). Forepart of deer (N. C., 1897, p. 254). Helmet. Prow. Lyre. Delphic omphalos with two eagles (BMC Mysia, No. 100).
Bearded Kabeiros. Aphrodite wearing stephane. Bearded male head, laureate (N. C., 1898, p. 197). Demeter or Kore, profile (two types, N. C., 1897, p. 253); also facing (Fig. 274). Young Dionysos. Pan (G. No. 40). Atys. Gorgoneion (N. C., 1893, p. 82).
Apollo on swan; also on griffin. Apollo with lyre. Helios holding two horses. Demeter with torch. Young Dionysos seated on rock. Aphrodite and Eros. ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙ(a) seated (R. N., 1908, p. 421). Kybele on lion. Perseus with Gorgon’s head. Man restraining horse (N. C., 1897, p. 254). Naked male figure kneeling, looking back (N. C., 1893, p. 81).
|Head and tail of fish (tunny ?). [BMC Mysia, Pl. III. 21.]||Rude incuse square.
AR 220 grs.
|Forepart of boar; behind, tunny.
[BMC Mysia, p. 34.]
|Head of lion; incuse square.
AR 20 grs., and smaller pieces.(Also with rev. Two tunnies).
[Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 22.]
For a tetradrachm bearing the name and portrait of the Satrap Pharnabazus, struck at Cyzicus, see ‘Satrapal Coins' (under Ionia) infra.
|ΣΩΤΕΙΡΑ Head of Kore Soteira
wearing corn-wreath and veil.
[B. M. Guide, Pl. XVIII. 8.]
|ΚΥΖΙ Lion’s head; beneath, tunny.
AR 233 grs.(Also some of later style with ΚΥΖΙΚΗΝΩΝ.)
|Similar; beneath, tunny.|
[Cf. parasaemon παρασημον on stele of proxenia προξενια, J. H. S., 1904, p. 38.]
|ΚΥΖΙ Apollo, seated on omphalos, beside which, lyre.
AR 205 grs. and 196 grs. [B. M. Guide, Pl. XXIX. 27]; also 90 grs. [N. C., 1897, p. 112].
|Head of Kore Soteira.||ΚΥΖΙ Tripod; beneath, tunny.
|Head of Apollo.||ΚΥΖΙ Tripod; beneath, tunny.
[Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 22].
|Head of Apollo.||ΚΥΖΙ Amphora and tunny.
[Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 22].
|Head of Kore Soteira.||Monogram in wreath; beneath, ΚΥ.
|Tunny in corn-wreath.||ΚΥΖΙ Monogram in wreath.
|Bull’s head.||ΚΥΖΙ Term (Apollo ?).
[Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 22].
|Female head in diadem and oak-wreath.
[Kore Soteira : Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 23 f.].
|ΚΥΖΙΚΗΝΩΝ torch in oak wreath.
AR 252 grs.
|Head of Kore Soteira.
[N. C., 1902, p. 329.]
|ΚΥΖΙ Tunny in oak-wreath.
AR 24 grs.
Bronze with types relating to Kore Soteira; Long torch; Head of Athena; Bull; Bucranium; Sphinx (Kleinas. M., p. 505); Apollo, etc. Inscr., ΚΥΖΙ; ΚΥΖΙΚΗΝΩΝ.
Imperial— Augustus to Claudius Gothicus. Also quasi-autonomous of all periods. Inscr., ΚΥΖΙΚΗΝΩΝ, usually with ΝЄΟΚΟΡΩΝ or ΔΚ ΝЄΟΚΟΡΩΝ; ΚΥΖΙ.
Types. Bust of ΚΟΡΗ CΩΤЄΙΡΑ (or Faustina II as Kore, Fig. 275); Zeus; Poseidon; Apollo with foot on omphalos (BMC Mysia, p. 51, No. 239); Ares; Hermes; ΑΘΗΝΑ ΣΩΤΙΡΑ holding Nike (Imhoof GM, p. 614); Asklepios; Hephaestos seated; Dionysos seated on panther; Dionysos in car drawn by panthers (Gr. M., p. 615); Dionysos feeding panther; Liknophoros Λικνοφορος (Gr. M., p. 615); Dancing satyr and nymph (cf. Journ. Int., 1902, p. 179); Eros; Eirene and Ploutos; Male figure reclining and M. Aurelius sacrificing (BMC Mysia, p. 41, No. 175); Male figure in star-spangled dress reclining (BMC Mysia, p. 50, No. 236); Antinoüs; Artemis; Demeter, attended by Maenad, in car drawn by Centaurs and Pan, with Eros in front and Liknophoros λικνοφορος behind (Fig. 275). Galley. Stork. Calf. Lion and ox (Kleinas. M., p. 26). She-wolf (Imhoof GM, p. 613). Ostrich (Gr. M., p. 613). Circular building, on each side, torch entwined by serpent (Imh., Gr. u. röm. Münzkunde, 1908, p. 41); Temple; Torch entwined by serpent and ears of corn and poppies. Herdsman milking goat (Z. f. N., xv. 42). The founder ΚΥΖΙΚΟC,
bust and figure (BMC Mysia, p. 47 n.). Tyche of Cyzicus. River-god ΑΙCΗΠΟC. Armed athletes running (BMC Mysia, Pl. XIV. 5). Erection of palms at a festival (BMC Mysia, p. 55, No. 264; Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 25, No. 13). Triton holding oar. Rape of Persephone.
Magistrates: Strategos; Archon; Fuscus, proconsul of Asia under Trajan. Games. ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ. Alliance coins. Ephesus, Smyrna (Fig. 275).
Eleutherion, polichnion Musiasπολιχνιον Μυσιας (Steph. Byz.). The following fourth-century coin may belong to this place: obv. Head of Athena facing, rev. ΕΛΕΥ Lion standing. Æ size .45 (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 19).
Gambrium. The earliest coins bear the name of its dynast Gorgion (circ. B.C. 399) mentioned by Xenophon, Hell. iii. 1. 6 :—
|Head of Apollo.
[N. C., 1894, p. 315.]
|ΓΟΡΓΙ Forepart of rushing bull.
AR 52 grs.; also 24 grs. Cf. Æ with ΓΟΡ, Z. f. N., 1902, p. 191.
|Head of Apollo.
[BMC Mysia, p. 62.]
|ΓΑΜ Forepart of rushing bull.
Æ 26 grs.
Also Æ with inscr. ΓΑΜ, obv. Head of Apollo and various reverses; Star, Head of Medusa, Bull charging, Tripod.
Hadriani ad Olympum, on the left bank of the Rhyndacus, at Beyidje, on a spur of Mount Olympus (Hill, Journ. Int., i. 241; Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 20).
Imperial— Hadrian to Gallienus. Also quasi-autonomous. Inscr., ΑΔΡΙΑΝΩΝ sometimes with ΠΡΟC ΟΛΥΜΠΩ. Types—Zeus; Athena; Asklepios; Telesphoros; Dionysos in biga of Centaurs; Artemis; Demeter; infant Hermes in cradle, &c. Magistrate, Archon.
Hadrianeia (Hill, Journ. Int., i. 241; Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 20). Imperial— Hadrian to Otacilia Severa. Also quasi-autonomous Inscr., ΑΔΡΙΑΝΕΩΝ. Types— Bust of Senate; Head of ΑΗΜΟC; Zeus; Athena; Artemis; Telesphoros; Hermes standing before River-god reclining beneath tree; Kybele in lion-car. Magistrates, Archon, Strategos.
Hadrianothera, founded by Hadrian in commemoration of successful hunting excursions. Imperial— Hadrian to Philip. Also quasi-autonomous Inscr., ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟΘΗΡΙΤΩΝ. Types— Asklepios; Zeus, &c. Also obv. Boar’s head, rev. Telesphoros (N. C., vi. 115). Magistrates, Archon, Strategos.
Iolla, probably near Adramyteum (Imhoof, Mon. Gr., p. 245). Bronze coins of the fourth century B.C. Inscr., ΙΟΛΛΑ or ΙΟΛΛΕΩΝ. Types — Head of Athena or of Zeus, rev. Forepart of winged horse. Some of the silver and bronze coins of the Satrap Orontas are by some numismatists thought to have been struck at Iolla, and by others at Lampsacus. See ‘Satrapal Coins‘ (under Ionia) infra.
Lampsakos (Lampsacos, Lampsacus). The coinage of this celebrated city on the Hellespont consists of the following classes :—
|Forepart of winged horse; above, acanthus ornament.||Quadripartite incuse square.
EL. 216 grs.(The attribution of this stater and of similar staters with animal types is not certain; see B. M. C., Mysia, p. 78 n.)
|Forepart of winged horse.||Quadripartite incuse square.
AR Didr. 105 grs.; Tetrobol 36 grs.; Triob. 21 grs. (Phoenician standard).
About the close of the sixth century the Phoenician standard is abandoned for the Persic, and silver coins of the weight of the Persian siglos and its divisions are met with. The weight of the electrum stater appears about the same time to have been raised.
|Forepart of winged horse; sometimes
[Babelon, Traité, Pl. VIII. 1-4.]
|Quadripartite incuse square.
EL. Stater, 237 grs.
|Janiform female head, of archaic style. [B. M. Guide, Pl. II. 18.]||Head of Athena, of archaic style in
AR Persic Drachm (83 grs.) and subdivisions.
The electrum pieces appear to be the coins mentioned in Attic inscriptions (circ. B.C. 434), as chrusou stataeres Lampsakaenoiχρυσου στατηρες Λαμψακηνοι (Num. Chron., 1876, p. 290 : see also Babelon, Rev. Num., 1895, p. 35).
In this period the use of an electrum currency seems to have been finally abandoned at Lampsacus, and its place supplied by staters of pure gold struck on the standard of the gold darics (wt. 131 grs.: for references in inscriptions see Babelon, Traité, i. p. 491 n.). Among them are some of the most beautiful examples of Greek coin-art. The reverse type is uniformly the forepart of a winged horse in an incuse square. The following types of the obverse are known. These varying types are probably magistrates’ symbols, as on the electrum coins of Cyzicus; cf. Maonald, Coin Types, pp. 41, 50. (See list with plates by Miss A. Baldwin in Journ. Int., 1902, p. 5 f.)
|FIG. 276.||FIG. 277.||FIG. 278.|
Infant Herakles strangling serpents. Helle seated on ram. Nereid on dolphin. Male figure (Orpheus ?) seated, with lyre. Nike killing ram (Fig. 276). Gê rising from ground (Fig. 277). Nike erecting trophy (Fig. 278).
|FIG. 279.||FIG. 280.||FIG. 281.||FIG. 282.|
Zeus with or without fulmen (Fig. 279). Hera. Zeus Ammon. Athena (three types). Aphrodite. Demeter. Persephone. Hermes. Female head in lotus-wreath. Hekate. Kabeiros bearded (Fig. 280). Helios on radiate disk (Fig. 281). Winged head (Nike, or Eros?; cf. J. H. S., 1897, p. 85). Dionysos bearded. Bacchante, with flowing hair; also with hair in sakkos and with hair falling on neck. Herakles bearded. Male head in stephane; behind it, club ? (Baldwin, No. 29). Female satyr (Fig. 282). Pan, beardless, with goat’s horn. Satyr, three-quarter face. Aktaeon, with stag’s horn. Head in Persian head-dress. Young male head (Baldwin, No. 35). Female head, hair rolled, with ear-ring (ib., No. 36).
|Janiform female head.||ΛΑΜ or ΛΑΜΨΑ Head of Athena.
AR of Persic standard, 39 grs., &c.
|Head of Athena.||ΛΑΜ Forepart of winged horse.
AR 36 grs.
|Head of Apollo.||ΛΑΜ Id.
AR 19 grs.
There are also bronze coins of the fourth and third centuries; inscr., ΛΑΜ or ΛΑΜΨΑ; rev. usually Forepart of winged horse, obv. types; Janiform female head, Head of Nike (?) in laurel-wreath, Head of Athena, etc. For the fourth-century coins of the Satraps, Orontas and Spithridates, probably struck at Lampsacus, see infra Satrapal Coins (under Ionia infra).
Tetradrachms and drachms of Alexander the Great’s types, but of later style, have been attributed by Müller (Nos. 912-17) to Lampsacus. The symbol is the winged horse.
After the battle of Magnesia, Lampsacus was one of the towns upon which the Romans conferred autonomy.
|Head of Priapos, ivy-crowned and
[B. M. Guide, Pl. XLIX. 8.]
|ΛΑΜΨΑΚΗΝΩΝ Apollo Kitharoedos,
and magistrates’ names with patronymic. |
AR Attic Tetradrachm
There are also Æ, inscr. ΛΑΜ, ΛΑΜΨΑΚΗΝΩΝ, types relating to Priapos, Apollo, Athena, &c.
Lampsacus was one of the chief seats of the worship of Priapos, who had there the attributes of Dionysos (Virg. Georg. iv, 111; Athen. i. 54),
Imperial— Augustus to Gallienus. Inscr., ΛΑΜΨΑΚΗΝΩΝ; ΛΑΝΨΑΚΗΝΩΝ. Types— Statue of Priapos, sometimes in temple; Forepart of winged horse; Poseidon; Kybele; Athena; Phrixos and Helle (Z. f. N., vii. p. 25); Herakles and Omphale (Hunter Cat., Pl. XLVIII. 5). Magistrate, Strategos. Alliance coins with Phocaea.
Miletopolis (Melde near Kermasti), & town said to have been of Athenian origin, situated at the confluence of the rivers Macestus and Rhyndacus, in the northern part of Mysia. Bronze of fourth to first century B.C. Inscr. ΜΙΛΗΤΟ; ΜΙΛΗΤΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ. Types— obv. Head of Athena, rev. Owl, usually with double body; also Young male head, rev. Bull. Imperial— Trajan to Gordian III. Inscr., ΜЄΙΛΗΤΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ. Types— Hermes; Athena, &c. Armed figure of ΜЄΙΔΗΤΟC ΚΤΙCΤΗC (specimens found near Melde, N. C., 1906, p. 33). Mag. Epimeletes; Strategos.
Parium, on the Propontis between Lampsacus and Priapus. With regard to early electrum coins of the Gorgoneion type possibly struck at Parium see BMC Mysia, p. 94. Parium also coined, in all probability, the following silver pieces during the archaic period, and later.
|Gorgoneion. [BMC Mysia, Pl. XXI. 6.]||Incuse square containing a cruciform pattern.
AR 69, 50, and 36 grs.
|Gorgoneion, entwined with serpents.||ΠΑ ΡΙ Bull looking back; symbols, various.
AR 38 grs (Persic Hemidrachm).
Bronze coins: obv. Bull, rev. The great altar of Parium built by Hermocreon (Strabo x. 5, 7; xiii. 1, 13; cf. Jahrbuch arch. Inst., xi. 1896 (1897), p. 56). Also rev. Torch.
The next class of Parian silver coins cannot be earlier than the beginning of the second century B.C.
|Gorgoneion [Hunter Cat., II, Pl. XLVIII. 10.]||ΠΑΡΙΑΝΩΝ Nike with wreath.
AR Rhodian Tetradrachm 210 grs.
|Head of Demeter [BMC Mysia, p. 99.]||ΠΑΡΙΑΝΩΝ ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΟΣ ΑΚΤΑΙΟΥ and name of magistrate. Apollo Aktaeos (cf. Strabo xiii., 1, 13), holding lyre, standing between altar and omphalos.
AR Attic Tetradrachm
Also Æ. ΠΑ ΡΙ, ΠΑΡΙΑΝΩΝ; types, Heads of Zeus, Athena, Hermes, Medusa; Fulmen; Bull; Eagle; Stag; Altar; Sistrum, etc.
Colonial CoinageAugustus to Gallienus. Inscr. usually C.G.I.H.P. = Colonia Gemella Julia Hadriana Pariana. Types—PARIO CONDIT Head of the founder Parios; DEO CVPIDINI Eros standing (after Praxiteles), (N. C., 1893,
Pergamum (Bergama). According to one tradition Pergamum was colonized from Epidaurus under the leadership of the god Asklepios. The coins struck before the establishment of the Pergamene kingdom are mainly as follows:—
|Head of Apollo.||ΠΕΡΓΑ or ΠΕΡΓ Bearded male head
(Satrap) in Persian head-dress.
AR 24 grs.; also AR 11 grs.
|Head of Apollo.||ΠΕΡΓ Bull’s head.
AR 9 grs.
|Head of Apollo (cf. Imh., Gr. M., p. 93).||ΠΕΡΓΑ Two bulls’ heads facing one
|Head of Apollo.||ΠΕΡΓ Boar’s head.
|Female head (cf. Imh., Gr. M., Pl. VII. 8).||ΠΕΡΓ, &c. Two boars’ heads; also
two bulls’ heads.
The earliest coins belong to the time of the dynasty of Gongylos, who ruled under Persian favor; on the chronology see von Fritze in Corolla Num., p. 47 f.
|Head of young Herakles.||Palladium
[N. C., 1890, p. 198].
AV 133 grs.
|Head of Athena.||Palladium
[B. M. Guide, Pl. XLIX. 9].
AV 45 grs.
|Head of young Herakles.||ΠΕΡΓΑ, ΠΕΡΓΑΜΗ, etc. Palladium.
Æ 20 grs.
|Head of Athena.||ΠΕΡΓΑ Two bulls’ heads facing one
|Head of Athena.||ΠΕΡΓΑ Bull’s head.
|Head of young Herakles.||ΠΕΡ Head of Athena.
|Head of Athena.||ΠΕΡΓ Two stars.
The AV and the earliest AR were supposed by J. P. Six (N. C., 1890, p. 200) to have been issued in B.C. 310 by Herakles of Pergamum, son of Alexander the Great and Barsine, but they may be better assigned to the period of Lysimachus (von Fritze, l. c.). For later coinage of Pergamum see infra, p. 535.