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Coins of Pontius Pilate
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Corinth Coins and Cults
Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Denarii of Otho
Die Alignment 101
Dictionary of Roman Coins
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins
Edict on Prices
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Facing Portrait of Augustus
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Friend or Foe
The Gallic Empire
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The Hexastyle Temple of Caligula
Identifying Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary
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People in the Bible Who Issued Coins
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Later Roman Coinage
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Museum Collections Available Online
The [Not] Cuirassed Elephant
Not in RIC
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Pi-Style Athens Tetradrachms
Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
Reading Judean Coins
Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
Rome and China
Satyrs and Nymphs
The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
Star of Bethlehem Coins
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum
Taras Drachms with Owl Left
The Temple Tax
The Temple Tax Hoard
Travels of Paul
Tribute Penny Debate Continued (2015)
Tribute Penny Debate Revisited (2006)
Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Who was Trajan Decius
Notes: These penannular fibulae end in small coils.
Image: The body of this fibula has been twisted into a rope-like form. The ends are curled up or coiled.
Image: A large Penannular fibula, with rectangular cross-section, 35x36mm, 6,19g. (Quadrans Collection)
Typology: BŲhme 51b; Genceva 35
Dates: AD 100 - 400. Flourished AD 350 - 400. According to other sources AD 275 - 400.
Distribution: Britain, Raetia, eastern Europe
Notes: The ends of these pennannular fibulae are folded over.
Image: Penannular fibula. 25x27mm, 3,69g. (Quadrans Collection)
These penannular fibulae end in knobs.
Image: Penannular fibula with spherical knobs. These knobs have a twisted ridge design. 29x29mm, 5,01g. (Quadrans Collection.)
Image: Drawing of a penannular fibula with faceted cuboid end knobs. The fibula is late-Viking or early Medieval Rus. The image is from Korzukhina, G.F. Russian Treasures IX to XIIIth Centuries. USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow (1954).
These penannular fibulae end in stylized animal heads.
These fibulae are derived from the penannular fibulae but incorporate other elements.
Typology: Ring fibulae. Instead of the terminals on penannular fibulae these fibulae have a squarish extension, often decorated, which serves as the pin-rest.
Dates: c. AD 250 - 350
Distribution: possibly Danubian origin, found throughout the Roman Empire.
Notes: The large penannular fibulae have a rectangular extension where the pin ends. According to some sources these might actually be large buckles.
Image: Penannular fibula with extension with two kidney-shaped "eyes", the pin is missing, 63,5x56,5mm, 30,96g. (Quadrans Collection.)
Typology: Genceva 34
Dates: 500 BC - AD 400. Especially prevalent 50 BC - AD 250 in Roman contexts, and AD 200 - 400 in Germanic contexts. Remained in use, especially in northern Europe, until the 11th century AD.
Distribution: Britain, Rhine, Germany, Iberia during the Roman era. Northern and northwestern Europe afterwards.
Notes: The ends of this sub-group of penannular fibulae are turned out, away from each other, giving the fibula the overall appearance of the Greek letter omega.
Image: A Silver Omega fibula. 27,5x30mm, 3,64g. (Quadrans Collection)