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Babelon, E. Les Rois de Syrie, d'Armιnie, et de Commagθne, Catlogue de monnaies grecques de la Bibliothθque Nacionale. (Paris, 1890).
Langlois, V. Numismatique de l'Armιnie. (Paris, 1859).
Bedoukian, P. "Coinage of the Armenian Kingdoms of Sophene and Commagene" in ANSMN 28 (New York, 1983).
Bedoukian, P. Coinage of the Artaxiads of Armenia. RNS Special Publication Number 10. (London, 1978).
Gardner, P. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum, The Seleucid Kings of Syria. (Forni reprint, 1963).
Kovacs, F. "Additions and corrections to Armenian coins and their values" in Armenian Numismatic Journal 30/3 (2004).
Kovacs, F. Armenian Coinage in the Classical Period. CNS 10. (Lancaster, PA, 2016).
Kovacs, F. "Tigranes IV, V, and VI: New Attributions" in AJN 20 (2008).
Mousheghian, A. & G. Depeyrot. Hellenistic and Roman Armenian Coinage (1st c. BC - 1st c. AD). Moneta 15. (Wettern, 1999).
Mousheghian, K., et al. History and Coin Finds in Armenia: Coins from Duin, Capital of Armenia. Moneta 18. (Wetteren, 2000).
Nercessian, Y. Armenian Coins and Their Values. Armenian Numismatic Society, Special Publication No. 8. (Los Angeles, 1995).
Nercessian, Y. "Coinage of the Armenian Kingdom of Sophene (ca. 260-70 B.C.)" in Armenian Numismatic Journal 37.3 (Sep 2011).
Nercessian, Y. Silver Coinage of the Artaxiad Dynasty of Armenia. (Los Angeles, 2006).
Nercessian, Y. "Silver Coins of Artavasdes II of Armenia" in Armenian Numismatic Journal 29-1 (March 2003).
Nercessian, Y. "Silver Coins of Tigranes II of Armenia" in Armenian Numismatic Journal 26-3 & 4. (December 2000).
Nercessian, Y. "Tigranes the Great of Armenia and the Mint of Damascus" in Armenian Numismatic Journal 22-1 (March 1996).
Vardanyan, R. "A Dated Copper Coin of Artaxias II: Evidence on the Use of the Pompeyan Era in Artaxata" in Armenian Numismatic Journal XXVII (2001).
Historic Armenia, at the crossroads of the three continents, is a land of snow-clad mountains and deep valleys. Like most mountainous countries, Armenia was destined to be a poor land whose inhabitants survived solely through their courage. It was not until the twentieth century that history of Armenia was subjected to serious study. Until quite recently very little material was available for research or collecting.
Early kings in traditional Armenian chronology according to Moses of Chorene.
Note that the early dates are traditional and of uncertain accuracy.
Orontes I Sakavakyats (570560 BC)
Tigranes Orontid (560535 BC)
Vahagn (530515 BC)
Hidarnes I (late 6th century BC)
Hidarnes II (early 5th century BC)
Hidarnes III (middle of the 5th century BC)
Ardashir (2nd half of the 5th century BC)
Orontes (401344 BC)
Darius Codomannus (344336 BC)
Orontes II (336331 BC)
Mithranes (331323 BC)
Neoptolemus Orontid (non-dynastic) (323321 BC)
Mithranes (321317 BC)
Orontes III (317260 BC)
Sames (260243 BC)
Arsames (243228 BC)
Xerxes (228212 BC)
Orontes IV (212200 BC)
Abdisares ( 189166 BC)
Artashesian (Artaxiad) Dynasty
Artaxias I (190159 BC)
Tigranes I (159123 BC)
Artavasdes I (12395 BC)
Tigranes the Great (Tigranes II, 9555 BC)
Artavasdes II (5534 BC)
Artaxias II (3320 BC)
Tigranes III (2010 BC)
Tigranes IV, first reign, pro-Parthian (c. 8 - 5 BC)
Tigranes IV second reign, with Erato, pro-Roman (c. 2 BC)
Roman and Parthian non-dynastic candidates
Ariobarzanes (2 BC - AD 4) (Roman protectorate)
Artavasdes III (AD 4 - 6)
Tigranes V (Herodian Tigranes I), with Erato (AD 6 - 12)
Vonones (former king of Parthia) 1216 (Roman protectorate)
Roman interregnum 1618 (Vonones as nominal king)
Artaxias III 1835 (Roman protectorate)
Arsaces I of Armenia (son of Artabanus III) 35 (Parthian protectorate)
Orodes of Armenia (pretender, son of Artabanus III) 35
Mithridates 3537 (Roman protectorate)
Orodes (now king) 3742 (Parthian protectorate)
Mithridates (second time) 4251 (Roman protectorate)
Rhadamistus (son of Pharasmanes I of Iberia) 5153 (Roman protectorate)
Tiridates I (son of Vonones II of Parthia) 53 (Roman protectorate)
Rhadamistus (second time) 5354 (Roman protectorate)
Arshakuni (Arsacid) Kings of Armenia
Tiridates I (second time) 5258
Tigranes VI (Herodian Tigranes II), first reign, 59/60 - 62 (Roman protectorate)
Tiridates I 6288 (Parthian protectorate 6263; from 63 Armenia again becomes a Roman protectorate)
Tigranes VI (Herodian Tigranes II), second reign, AD 66/67 (Roman protectorate)
Sanatruces (Sanatruk) 88110
Axidares (Ashkhadar) 110113
Parthamasiris (Partamasir) 113114
Roman Province 114117/8
Vologases I (Vagharsh I) 117/8144
Sohaemus (second time) 163/4186?
Vologases II (Vagharsh II) 186198
Khosrov I 198217
Tiridates II 217252
Khosrov II c. 252
Sassanid Occupation 252287
Artavasdes IV 252287 Sassanid Client King
Tiridates III 287330 (Roman protectorate again)
Khosrov III 330339
Tigranes VII (Tiran) 339 c. 350
Arsaces II (Arshak II) c. 350368
Sassanid Occupation 368
Papas (Pap) 370374
Varasdates (Varazdat) 374378
Arsaces III (Arshak III) 378387 with co-ruler Vologases III (Vagharsh III) 378386
Khosrov IV 387389
Local Independent Government 417422
Artaxias IV (Artashir IV) 422428
|Please add updates or make corrections to the NumisWiki text version as appropriate.|
ARMENIA - A region of Asia, now forming part of the Diar Bekir and Kourdistan in the Turkish empire. It was anciently divided into two provinces, Major and Minor. Armenia Major was on the Eastern bank of the Euphrates, bounded on the north by Colchis and Iberia; on the south by Mesopotamia. Armenia Minor was on the Western bank of the Euphrates, bounded on the west by Cappadocia, of which it originally formed part; on the south by the chain of the Taurus. Armenia, as a country, was distinguished by the bow, quiver of arrows, and oblong mitre in the shape of a hood (a covering for the head, which was common to its inhabitants of both sexes). - Lucullus was the first of the Roman generals, who under the Republic, invaded Armenia (B.C. 69). He vanquished its king (Tigranes II), son-in-law of Mithridates Eupator, and took Tigranocerta its capital (now Sert in Kourdistan). This king afterwards surrendered his crown to Pompey, the successor of Lucullus (B.C. 66), and who, after having despoiled him of Mesopotamia, permitted him to reign in Armenia. - Tigranes being dead, the Romans became almost the absolute masters of the kingdom. - M. Antonius filched its crown from Artavasdes the lawful sovereign, about 33 B.C. - Augustus gave a king to it, when at the death of Artaxias it was recepta, or taken into possession, by the Romans, 28 B.C., and succeeding emperors continued to exercise an oppressive power over its government. At length Trajan united it as a province of the Empire; Antoninus (see REX ARMENIS DATVS) bestowed a king upon it; and Armenia remained for ages afterwards the slave of Imperial Rome.
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