- The Collaborative Numismatics Project
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register. The column on the left includes the "Best of NumisWiki" menu. If you are new to collecting, start with Ancient Coin Collecting 101. All blue text is linked. Keep clicking to endlessly explore. Welcome Guest. Please login or register. The column on the left includes the "Best of NumisWiki" menu. All blue text is linked. Keep clicking to endlessly explore. If you have written a numismatic article, please add it to NumisWiki.

Resources Home
Home
New Articles
Most Popular
Recent Changes
Current Projects
Admin Discussions
Guidelines
How to

Index Of All Titles


BEST OF

AEQVITI
Aes Grave
Aes Rude
The Age of Gallienus
Alexander Tetradrachms
Ancient Coin Collecting 101
Ancient Coin Prices 101
Ancient Coin Dates
Ancient Coin Lesson Plans
Ancient Coins & Modern Fakes
Ancient Counterfeits
Ancient Glass
Ancient Oil Lamps
Ancient Weapons
Ancient Wages and Prices
Ancient Weights and Scales
Anonymous Folles
Anonymous Follis
Anonymous Class A Folles
Antioch Officinae
Aphlaston
Armenian Numismatics Page
Brockage
Byzantine
Byzantine Denominations
A Cabinet of Greek Coins
Caesarean and Actian Eras
Campgates of Constantine
Carausius
A Case of Counterfeits
Byzantine Christian Themes
Clashed Dies
Codewords
Coins of Pontius Pilate
Conditions of Manufacture
Corinth Coins and Cults
Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Danubian Celts
Damnatio Coinage
Damnatio Memoriae
Denomination
Denarii of Otho
Diameter 101
Die Alignment 101
Dictionary of Roman Coins
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins
Draco
Edict on Prices
ERIC
ERIC - Rarity Tables
Etruscan Alphabet
The Evolving Ancient Coin Market
EQVITI
Facing Portrait of Augustus
Fel Temp Reparatio
Fertility Pregnancy and Childbirth
Fibula
Flavian
Fourree
Friend or Foe
The Gallic Empire
Gallienus Zoo
Greek Alphabet
Greek Coins
Greek Dates
Greek Coin Denominations
Greek Mythology Link
Greek Numismatic Dictionary
Hellenistic Names & their Meanings
Hasmoneans
Hasmonean Dynasty
Helvetica's ID Help Page
The Hexastyle Temple of Caligula
Historia Numorum
Horse Harnesses
Identifying Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary
Important Collection Auctions
Islamic Rulers and Dynasties
Julian II: The Beard and the Bull
Koson
Kushan Coins
People in the Bible Who Issued Coins
Imperial Mints of Philip the Arab
Later Roman Coinage
Latin Plurals
Latin Pronunciation
Library of Ancient Coinage
Life in Ancient Rome
List of Kings of Judea
Malloy Weapons
Maps of the Ancient World
Military Belts
Mint Marks
Monogram
Museum Collections Available Online
Nabataean Alphabet
Nabataean Numerals
The [Not] Cuirassed Elephant
Not in RIC
Numismatic Bulgarian
Numismatic Excellence Award
Numismatic French
Numismatic German
Numismatic Italian
Numismatic Spanish
Parthian Coins
Patina 101
Paleo-Hebrew Alphabet
Phoenician Alphabet
Pi-Style Athens Tetradrachms
Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
Reading Judean Coins
Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
Roman Militaria
Roman Mints
Roman Names
romancoin.info
Rome and China
Satyrs and Nymphs
Scarabs
Serdi Celts
Serrated
Siglos
The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
Star of Bethlehem Coins
Statuary Coins
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum
Syracusian Folles
Taras Drachms with Owl Left
The Temple Tax
The Temple Tax Hoard
Test Cut
Travels of Paul
Tribute Penny
Tribute Penny Debate Continued (2015)
Tribute Penny Debate Revisited (2006)
Tyrian Shekels
Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
Vabalathus
Venus Cloacina
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Who was Trajan Decius
Widow's Mite
XXI

   View Menu
 

Saturnus



Please add updates or make corrections to the NumisWiki text version as appropriate.
     Saturnus. -- Saturn, under whose fabled reign
-- the "golden age" -- the happiest times were
enjoyed by all, was nevertheless affirmed by the
ancients to have been himself expelled from his
kingdom of felicity by his son Jupiter, and to
have sought refuge in Italy at the court of king
Janus. -- There is a passage in Macrobius (quoted
by Bimard) which attributes, not to Saturn (as
Jobert makes Eutropius do), but to Janus, the
first use of money, adding, however, that out
of respect for Saturn (in Saturni reverentiam)
Janus caused to be engraved, on these first
specimens of coinage, the ship which had
brought Saturn to Italy. -- Saturn was regarded
as the God of Time, and is represented on
ancient monuments as a decrepit old man holding
a sickle or reaping-hook, called falx. Sometimes
also he is represented with his infant son
in his arms, and lifting the child up to his
mouth, as if intending to devour it, as the old
myth relates on that point.
   Spanheim (in his Notes on the Caesars of
Julian
, p. 10) refers to this god a figure on an
ancient marble published by Spon, in which
Saturn is represented in the form of an old man
veiled, and with his falx. The same writer also
mentions to have seen a small silver medal
bearing a similar bust, which he likewise refers
to Saturn, on account of the attribute of the
curved knife, also engraved upon it. Besides
which (he adds) there is a medal in the French
King's Cabinet, struck under Elagabalus, by
the city of Heraclea, and published in the
collection of Patin, which represents Saturn, or
Time, with a scythe in his hands, and moreover
with wings on his shoulders. -- According to
Plutarch, he was believed by the Romans to
have presided over agriculture and fruits --
to have been, in short, the guardian of rural
affairs, as well as the Father of the year and of
the months. -- For this reason a laureated and
bearded head, with a sickle behind it, on a
denarius of the Calpurnia moneyers, commemorative
of the mission of Piso and Caepio as Quaestores
AD FRVmentum EMVndum
, to buy corn, and
distribute it among the people, is considered by
Eckhel as most probably the head of Saturn. --
Another head of the same deity, as designated
by the falx asperis dentibus, or reaping-hook,
with serrated edge -- an instrument allusive to
him as the reputed inventor of agriculture, and
whence he is called falcifer by Ovid, is to be
found on coins of the Memmia, Servilia, and
Sentia moneyers.
   Saturn is most certainly represented on a
silver coin of the Neria moneyers -- his symbol the
harpa, or falx, is prominent behind the head.
"But this (says Eckhel) is not the only proof
that it is Saturn. The title given to NERIus
of Quaestor VRBanus, and the military standards
which are on the reverse additionally testify
it. It is well known that the Quaestors were the
Praefects or principal officers of the Roman
treasury (Praefecti aerarii), but it is also
known that the aerarium was in the temple of
Saturn.
   Saturn is considered to be typified, in a
quadriga, on a denarius of Saturninus. -- See
the Sentia moneyers.
   Saturni navis. -- The ship of Saturn, which
appears on the reverse of the Roman as, was in
the most ancient times the peculiar symbol of
Saturn, it being, according to the story, with a
fleet that he came to Janus, in Italy.
   Saturn, under the form of a man with a
beard, veiled, and wearing the toga, who standing
holds the harpa in his left hand, appears on
coins of Valerianus and of Gallienus, as a symbol
of Eternity. See AETERNITATI AVGG.
   It is thus that Eckhel decidedly considers the
above described effigy should be understood,
and not as an image of Pluto, which Tanini
supposes it. In proof of it being Saturn, he
refers inter alia to the harpa (reaping hook),
the beard, the veil covering the head, all sure
indications of that pagan deity, the two former
attributes being never ommited in his typification.
The Romans gave him the falx or harpa on
account of agriculture, over which they commonly
believed him to preside. Macrobius says :
Simulacrum ejus indicio est, cui falcem insigne
messis adjecit
. Cyprian observes: Rusticitatis
hic cultor fuit ; inde falcem ferens pingilur
.






View whole page from the Dictionary Of Roman Coins