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[Müller, Numismatique de l'ancienne Afrique, iii, pp. 78 f. and Suppl., pp. 69 f.;
Babelon, Rev. Num., 1889, pp. 403 f.; Cagnat, op. cit.]
Syphax (circ. B.C. 213-202). Æ. Inscr. ספק הממלכת (Spq hammamlekent). Types—Diademed head of king, or Bare male head, rev. Horseman galloping (Müller, iii, p. 90, 2-4, iv, p. 69).
|Bust of king, diademed (Fig. 398).||ורמנד הממלכת (Urmnd hammamleket)
Horse galloping. |
AR 227.6 grs.
Bocchus I or II, or Bogud I (first half of first century B.C.).
|Head of king, diademed.
[Müller, iv, Pl. III. 4 a.]
|Prow of war-vessel. |
AR 228.4 grs.
|Id. [Müller, iv, Pl. III. 4 b.]||Id. |
AR 109.2 grs.
|Griffin devouring stag.
[B. M. Guide, Pl. LXX. 40.]
|REX BOCVT Griffin standing, above
which, winged disk.
AR Denarius 64 grs.
|Head of Africa in elephant-skin.||Id. |
AR Denarius 45 grs.
|Bearded head.||REX BOCVT Prow. |
Bocchus II (III), king of eastern Mauretania, circ. B.C. 49-38, and of eastern and western Mauretania B.C. 38-33. Bronze. Inscr., בקש (Bqs) or פקש (Pqs), rev. שיגען (= Sigan), indicating that they were struck at the town of Siga. Also בקש הממלכת and שמש = ‘Bocchus the king’, struck at Semes. Types—Male head with pointed beard, rev. Bacchus (?) holding a small bull by one horn; Star, grapes, and ear of corn (Müller, iii, p. 98, iv, p. 72).
There are also Æ coins with inscr. בקש הממלכת (or פקש), REX BOCCHVS, and SOSI F?; types, Bust of Africa in elephant-skin, rev. Head of Janus, or Male head, rev. Elephant. These Müller (iv, p. 73) attributes to the Interregnum of B.C. 33-25.
The city of Carthago Nova conferred upon Juba the honorary title of Duumvir quinquennalis. Cf. Müller, iii, p. 111.
ΒΑCΙΛΙCCΑ ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑ on the reverse; types, portraits of Juba and Cleopatra (Fig. 399), or types referring to the worship of Isis, and other Egyptian divinities. Others bear the head and name, always in Greek, of Cleopatra alone.
Ptolemy, A. D. 23-40, the son of Juba and Cleopatra, was co-regent with his father before the death of the latter, as is evident from denarii bearing the joint names and portraits REX IVBA, rev. REX PTOLEMAEVS and dates. He issued also some rare gold coins.
|REX PTOLEMAEVS Diademed head. [Mommsen, Sitzungsber. Berl. Akad., 1883, xliii.]||R A XVIII Wreath on sella curulis, with
sceptre leaning against it.
AV 48.8 grs.
|Id. [British Museum.]||PIETATI R A XV (?) Altar. |
AV 48 grs.
The denarii of this king are all of very light weight and inferior in execution to those of his father. Inscr., REX PTOLEMAEVS, and date R(egni) A(nno) I, II, etc. Types—Palm-tree, Elephant, Cornucopiae, Club, etc., etc.
The bronze coins read REX PTOLEMAEVS REGIS IVBAE F. or REG(nante) REGE PTOLEMAEO.
The inscr. REX PTOL in the center of certain bronze coins of Carthago Nova proves that that city paid the king of Mauretania the compliment of electing him as one of the municipal Duumviri quinquennales. Ptolemaeus was invited to Rome by Caligula A. D. 40, and there assassinated, after which Mauretania was constituted a Roman province.
Babba, a Roman colony founded by Augustus, under the title Colonia Campestris Julia Babba, abbreviated on coins C. C. I. B. Other inscriptions are D. D. PVBL. (Decreto Decurionum publico), and EX CONSENSV D(ecurionum). Bronze of Augustus (Rev. Num., 1889, p. 506), Claudius, Nero, and Galba. Types—Bull swimming; Bridge of three arches, &c.
Camarata, a maritime town not far from Siga. Bronze of barbarous work. Inscr., כמא (Km'a), obv. Rude head, rev. Grapes and ear of corn (Müller, iii, p. 143).
Lix, the most important town on the western or Atlantic coast of Mauretania. The coins are of the late autonomous period, with the Neo-Punic inscr. לכש and מבעל לכש (= Lks and Mbal Lks, the people of Lix), also LIXS and LIX. Types—Head of divinity in conical hat with cord hanging from the top, rev. Two bunches of grapes; Two fishes; Altar, &c. (Müller, iii, p. 155).
Sala, on the Atlantic coast, bordering upon the desert. Late autonomous bronze coins with Neo-Punic inscr. שעלת (S'lt), Bearded head, rev. Grapes with ear of corn and disk within crescent (Müller, iii, p. 163).
Semes. Site unknown. Bronze with name of Bocchus II (III) and autonomous, probably of the time of Juba II. Inscr., מקם שמש (Maqom Sms, City of the Sun), usually with bearded head of the Sun-god facing, rev. Star; Grapes and corn.
Timici, an inland town in the western part of Mauretania Caesariensis. Late autonomous bronze. Inscr., תמכי (Tmki), Bearded head, rev. Grapes between two laurel branches (Müller, iii, p. 143).
Tingis, now Tangiers, on the straits of Gibraltar, the chief town of Mauretania Tingitana. Late autonomous bronze with Neo-Punic legends, בעלת תתגא (B'lt Ttg') בעלת תינגא (B'lt Ting'), or מבעל תינגא (Mb'l Ting'), etc. (city or citizens of Tingis) (Müller, iii, p. 144), Bearded head of Baal without neck, or of Demeter, &c., rev. Ears (or ear) of corn. Also Imperial—Augustus and Agrippa, with Neo-Punic and Latin legend, IVL TIN, rev. Bearded head of Baal facing.
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MAVRETANIA.----An inhabitant of this province stands with a spear in his left hand, and holds with the other a horse by the bridle.----This name and appropriate type of the Moorish race, appears on a large brass of Hadrian, of which an illustration is here given.
The cavalry of the Mauri was renowned of old both for the excellence of the horses and the skill of the riders.----Accordingly we find the figures of horses stamped even on the earliest coins of the Mauretanian Kings. That this equestrian people were employed, under their leader Lusius Quintus, in the various wars of Trajan, is attested in several passages of Dion; and the Trajan column itself affords a lasting testimony to this fact, in that compartment of its sculptured shaft, on which the Moorish horsemen are represented making a furious charge upon the Dacians.
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MAVRETANIA--Spelled with an E as well on inscribed marbles as on coins of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Commodus--a region of Africa, separated from Spain by the straits of Gibraltar (fretum Gaditanum), and from Numidia buy the river Ampsaga. It is now Morocco.
The region remained under subjection to the Romans until about A.D. 441, when Genseric, King of the Vandals, gained possession of it. The Emperor Valentinian disputed with him its retention, sword in hand for three years, with various success; and at length peace was established between these two potentates, who divided Northern Africa between them. At the death of Valentinian, Genseric not only recovered all which he had ceded, but overthrew the Empire of the West. Justinian rec-conquered this territory ninety-five years after the Vandals had permanently occupied it.
Spanheim (Pr. ii. p. 583) affirms that the ensigns of royalty were accustomed to be sent to the Mauretanian Kings by the Roman Emperors, and in no other way were they confirmed in their regal dignity.