Greek Numismatic Dictionary

ΑΓΩΝ - competition, games

ΑΓΩΝΟΘΕΤΗΣ (abbreviation: ΑΓΩ) - Supervisor of the games

ΑΝΕΘΗΚΕ - has bestowed

ΑΝΘΥΠΑΤΟΣ - Proconsul

ΑΠΟ∆Ε∆ΕΙΓΜΕΝΟΣ (abbreviation: ΑΠΟ∆) - Lat. designatus (on coins of Philippopolis), designated, elected but not yet in Office

ΑΡΧ Α - Archon for the 1st time

ΑΡXΙΕΡΑ - High priestess (Eumeneia/Phrygia)

ΑΡXΙΕΡΑΤΙΚΟΝ - Special crown of the Archiereus

ΑΡXΙΕΡΕΥΣ (abbreviation: ΑΡX) - High priest

ΑΡXΙΕΡΕΥΣ ΑΣΙΑΣ - High priest of Asia

ΑΡXΩΝ - (abbreviation: ARX) - Archon, ruler (chief), Magistrate

ΑΣΥΛΟΝ (abbreviation: ΑΣ) - [with an] Asylum (a city with a temple or shrine offering an inviolable refuge for persons fleeing from pursuit)

ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΩΡ (abbreviations: Α, ΑΥ, ΑΥΤ, ΑΥΤΟΚ) - Emperor (self-ruler, autocrator)

ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΣ (abbreviations: Α, ΑΥ, ΑΥΤ, ΑΥΤΟ) - the autonomous (self-ruling City)

ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ (abbreviations: Β) - of king, from ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ - king


ΒΟΥΛΗ - council (personification)

ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΟΣ (abbreviations: ΓΕΡ, ΓΕΡΜ) - Germanicus (defeated the Germans)

ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΕΥΣ (abbreviations: ΓΡ) - Magistrate (e.g. in Magnesia ad Maeandrum)

∆ΑΚΙΚΟΣ (abbreviations: ∆ΑΚ, ∆ΑΚΙΚ) - Lat. Dacicus (defeated the Dacians)

∆Ε (4+5) instead of Θ (9), because it was the initial letter of ΘΑΝΑΤΟΣ (= death) and therefore taboo

∆ΕΚΑΕΘΡΙΣ ΚΥΡΙΟΥ - 10 years anniversary of our Lord (originally religious)

∆ΕΚΑΤΟΥ (Abbreviation: ∆ΕΚ, ∆ΕΚΑ)- of the 10th [year]

∆ ΕΠΑΡXΕΙΩΝ (abbreviation: D-E) - (City) of the 4 eparchias (on coins of Antiochia)

∆ΕΣΠΟΤΗΣ (abbreviations: ∆Ε, ∆ΕΣ, ∆ΕΣΠΟ, etc.) - Despot, but not in the modern English sense. The Greek word despotes is roughly equivalent to the Latin dominus and hence means simply 'lord'. In the Byzantine court, the title could be used by high-ranking ecclesiastics (e.g. the Patriarch) as well as by the Emperor. The word appears on Byzantine coins from about the beginning of the 9th-century, the reign of Nicephorus I. Note that on Byzantine coinage the letter Σ usually appears as C or sometimes S.

∆ΗΜΑΡXΙΚΗ (abbreviation: ∆ΗΜ) - Lat. tribunicia

∆ΙΣ - twice

∆ΙΣ ΝΕΩΚΟΡΩΝ (abbreviations: B ΝΕ, B ΝΕΩ, B ΝΕΩΚ) - (city) with 2 neocorias

∆ΙΟΣ ΚΑΤΕΒΑΙΤΟΣ - of the descending Zeus (epikleisis of Zeus as lightning god)

∆Ω∆ΕΩΚΑΤΟΥ (abbreviations: ∆Ω∆ΕΚ) - of the 12th [year]

ΕΘΝΑΡXΟΣ (abbreviation: ΕΘΝ) - Ethnarch, refer to rulers of vassal kingdoms who did not rise to the level of kings. The title first appears in the Hellenistic Middle East, possibly in Judea. Hyrcanus II, one of the later Hasmonean rulers of Judea, held the title of ethnarch, as well as that of High Priest. The best-known is probably Herod Archelaus, son of Herod the Great, who was ethnarch of the chief part of Palestine, Samaria, Judea and Idumea, from the death of his father in 4 BC to AD 6. His brother Philip received the north-east of the realm and was styled Tetrarch (circa 'ruler of a quarter'); and Galilee was given to Herod Antipas, who bore the same title. Consequently, Archelaus' title singled him out as the senior ruler, higher in rank than the tetrarchs and the chief of the Jewish nation; these three sovereigns were reunited under Herod Agrippa from AD 41 to 44. The Byzantines used the term generically to refer to the rulers of barbarian tribes or realms outside the boundaries of their empire. In modern Greek usage, the term has the connotation of "father of the nation."

ΕΝ∆ΕΚΑΤΟΥ (abbreviation: ΕΝ∆ΕΚ) - of the 11th [year]

ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΑΣ (from ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΑ = freedom) - the free, applied to those cities which had received the rights and privileges of Libertas by means of Senatus approval.

- the famous

ΕΝ∆ΟΞΟΤΕΡΑS - the even more famous

ΕΞΟΥΣΙΑ (abbreviation: ΕΞ) - Lat. potestas, power, authority

ΕΠΑΡXΟΣ (abbreviations: EP, EPA) - Eparch, governor of a province

ΕΠΙ - at (with Dativus), towards (with Accusativus)

ΕΠΙ∆HΜΙΑ - visit in a foreign city (e.g. Hadrian)

ΕΙΡΟΥ - Holy

ΕΝ ΠΟΝΤΩ - in the province of Pontos

ΕΤΟΣ - year

ΕΤΟΥΣ (abbreviation: ET) - of the year

ΕΤΟΥΣ Λ ΝΙΚΗΣ - of the year 30 of the victory

ΕΥΓΕΝΩΝ - of the well born, high-born

ΕΥΕΡΓΈΤΟΥ - Benefactor

ΕΥΣΕΒΗΣ (abbreviations: Ε, ΕΥ, ΕΥΣ) - Lat. pius, pious 

ΕΥΤΥXΩ - (dedicated to the) lucky, favored by Fortuna

ΗΓΕΜΩΝ - Governor

ΗΓΕΜΩΝΕΥΟΝΤΟΣ (abbreviations: ΗΓ, ΗΓΕ) - serving as governor (on Roman Provincial coins)

ΘΕΑ ΡΩΜΗ - the divine Rome, often as Accusativus: ΘΕΑΝ ΡΩΜΗΝ - (honoring) the divine Rome

ΘΕΜΙΑ (Abbreviation: ΘΕΜ) - Themian games, in honor of Themis

ΘΕΟΠΑΤΩΡ - Divine Father

ΘΕΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ (Genitivus) - of the Divine Father

ΘΕΟΣ (abbreviation: ΘΕΟ) - the holy

ΘΕΟΣ - Lat. divus (consecrated - made a god)

ΘΕΩ - Lat. divo (consecrated - made a god)

ΙΕΡA - sanctuary

ΙΕΡΟΣ ∆ΗΜΟΣ - the divine democracy (as personification), literary: ∆ΗΜΟΣ = people

KAI (Abbreviation: K) - and

ΚΑΙΣΑΡ (abbreviations: Κ, ΚΑΙ, ΚΑΙΣ) - Caesar

ΚΑΛΛΙΣΤΟΣ (Abbreviation; K) - the most beautiful

KOINON (abbreviation: KOIN) - the common, then: community, alliance, league, e.g. ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΜΑΚΕ∆ΟΝΩΝ the League of the Macedonians

ΚΤΙΣΤΗΣ (abbreviation: ΚΤΙΣΤ) - founder (of a City)

L - year, of the year (possibly Coptic, on coins of Alexandria and Syria)

ΜΕΓΙΣΤΟΣ (abbreviation: M) - the greatest

ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙΣ (abbreviations: ΜΕΤ, ΜΕΤΡ, ΜΕΤΡΟ) - main city

ΝΑΥΑΡXIΣ - "Lady of a fleet", Epitheton of some harbor towns like Tripolis, Sidon, Tyros or Laodicaea ad Mare

ΝΕΩΚΟΡΙΑ - neocoria (honorary office of the imperial cult, from ΝΕΩΚΟΡΟΣ - temple guard). The permission to establish a neocoria was awarded by the emperor and each city was very proud to get such permission. Yes, the cities competed for the number of neocorias and mentioned it on their coins.

OMONOIA - Concept of order and unity, being of one mind together or union of hearts. It was used by the Greeks to create unity in the politics of classical Greece. It saw widespread use when Alexander the Great adopted its principles to govern his vast Empire. Homonoia was extended under Roman rule in the highly urbanized East as a symbolic mechanism for dealing with intra-city tensions and for linking the sometimes intensely individual eastern city-states (Wikipedia)

ΠΑΤΗΡ ΠΑΤΡΙΑΣ (abbreviation: ΠΠ) - Lat. Pater Patriae (Father of the country)

ΠΡΕΣΒΕΥΤΗΣ - legatus Augusti pro praetore (Tyana)

ΠΡΟΣ (abbreviations: Π, ΠΡ, ΠΡΟ) - at (with Dativus), towards (with Accusativus)

ΠΡΟΣ ΙΠΠΟΝ (abbreviation: ΠΡ ΙΠ) - ad Hippum (Antiochia)

ΠΡΟΣ ΙΣΤΡΟΝ - towards the river Istros (Nikopolis), today Danube

ΠΡΟΣ ΙΣΤΡΩ - at the river Istros (Nikopolis), today Danube

ΠΡΟΣ ΤΩ ΚΑΛΥΚΑ∆ΝΩ - at the river Kalykadnos (Seleukeia), today Göksu river

ΠΡΟΣ ΤΩ ΠΥΡΑΜΩ - at the river Pyramos (Hieropolis), today Kayhan river

ΠΡΩΤOΣ (abbreviation: A, ΠΡΩ) - the first

ΠΥΘΙΑ (Abbreviation: ΠΥΘ) - Pythian games

Σ written as  C: from about 25 BC

ΣΕΒΑΣΤΗ (abbreviations: Σ, ΣΕΒ, ΣΕΒΑ) - Augusta

ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ (abbreviations: Σ, ΣΕΒ, ΣΕΒΑ) - Augustus

ΣΕΜΝΟΣ - venerable, sacred

ΣΤΡΑΤHΓΟΣ (abbreviations: ΣΤΡ) - General, Magistrate

ΣΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΣ - Senate, often as ΙΕΡΑ ΣΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΣ - holy Senate

ΣΩΤΗΡ - Savior

TΕΤΡΑΡXΟΣ - Tetrarch (Syrien)

ΤΗΣ ΚΗΤΩΝ - of the Ketos (sea monster), epitheton of Koropissos (Cilicia)

ΤΟ Β, ΤΟ Γ - for the second, the third time (e.g. archon, strategos) etc.

ΤΟΙΣ ΚΥΡΙΟΙΣ - (dedicated to) the Lords (adulating title for the Severans in Nikopolis. originally only in religious sense)

ΤΟΠΑΡXΟΣ - Toparch (High Priest in Olba/Cilicia)

ΤΟΥ ΠΟΝΤΟΥ (abbreviation: ΠΟΝ) - of the province of Pontos

ΤΩΝ (abbreviations: T) - of that, of the [city, tribe, people] plural

Y written as V: beginning unknown

ΥΙΟΥ - of the son, Gen. of ΥΙΟΣ = son


ΥΠΑΤΕΥΩΝ - legatus Augusti pro praetore (governor of a province as ex-consul)

ΥΠΑΤΕΥΟΝΤΟΣ (abbreviations: Υ, ΥΠ, ΥΠΑ) - when xy was serving as legatus Augusti pro praetore (governor of a province as ex-consul)

ΥΠΑΤΟΣ (abbreviations: ΥΠ, ΥΠΑ, ΥΠΑΤ) - Consul

ΦΙΛΑ∆ΕΛΦΟΣ - Sibling-Lover

ΦΙΛΕΛΛΕΝΟΣ - Friend of the Greeks (Title of king Aretas III)

ΦΙΛ Κ ΣΥ = ΦΙΛΑ∆ΕΛΦΙΑ ΚΟΙΛΗΣ ΣΥΡΙΑΣ - Philadelphia in Coele-Syria

ΦΙΛΑΝΤΩΝΙΟΣ - Friend of (Marcus) Antonius, title of king Tarkondimotos in Cilicia

ΦΙΛΟΡΩΜΑΙΟΣ - friend of the Romans, title of king Ariobarzanos I

XΡΥΣΟΡΟΑΣ - name of a river god, literary: "Streaming with Gold", today Barada river in Syria

Ω written as  ω: beginning in Athens between 80 and 40 BC