Roman Republic, Lead Glandes Sling-Bullet, 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
According to the report of Vegatius, Republican slingers had an accurate range of up to six hundred feet. The best ammunition was cast from lead. For a given mass, lead, being very dense, offered the minimum size and therefore minimum air resistance. Also, lead sling-bullets were small and difficult to see in flight. In some cases, the lead would be cast in a simple open mold made by pushing a finger, thumb, or sharpened stick into sand and pouring molten metal into the hole. The flat top end could later be carved to a matching shape. More frequently, they were cast in two-part molds. Sling-bullets were made in a variety of shapes including an ellipsoidal form closely resembling an acorn; possibly the origin of the Latin word for lead sling-bullet: glandes plumbeae (literally leaden acorns) or simply glandes (meaning acorns, singular glans). The most common shape by far was biconical, resembling the shape of an almond or an American football. Why the almond shape was favored is unknown. Possibly there was some aerodynamic advantage, but it seems equally likely that there was a more prosaic reason, such as the shape being easy to extract from a mold, or that it will rest in a cradle with little danger of rolling out. Almond-shaped lead sling-bullets were typically about 35 millimeters (1.4 in) long and about 20 millimeters (0.8 in) wide. Sometimes or writings were molded on the side. A thunderbolt, a snake, a scorpion, or others indicating how it might strike without warning were popular. might include the name of the military unit or commander, or was sometimes more imaginative, such as, "Take this," "Ouch," "Catch," or even "For Pompey's backside."AW66458. Lead glandes sling-bullet; cf. Petrie XLIV 15-23; roughly biconical, c. 40 - 90 grams, c. 3 - 5 cm long, one sling-bullet randomly selected from the same group as those in the photo, ONE BULLET, BARGAIN PRICED!; $24.00 (€21.36)
Ptolemaic Kyrenaica, Ptolemy III - Ptolemy II (Physcon), 246 - 116 B.C.
Alexander the Great received tribute from the cities of Kyrenaica after he took . Kyrenaica was annexed by Ptolemy I . It briefly gained independence under Magas of Cyrene, stepson of Ptolemy I, but was reabsorbed into the Ptolemaic empire after his death. It was separated from the main kingdom by Ptolemy and given to his son Ptolemy Apion, who, dying without heirs in 96 B.C., bequeathed it to the Roman Republic.GP65950. Bronze AE 12, 874 (Ptolemy II, 1 specimen), cf. 445 (Ptolemy III), 105 (Ptolemy V), 130 (Ptolemy III), 484 (uncertain date), VF, 0.881 g, maximum 12.0 mm, 0o, Kyrene mint, 246 - 116 B.C.; diademed of Ptolemy I right, wearing ; of right, wearing , below chin; $80.00 (€71.20)
, 25 September 275 - June 276 A.D.
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at but also at Athens. Her could not be stained with blood. began the construction of a magnificent temple to her , which finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the , the olive branch, the , and often the . Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.RA47000. , 3257, 44, 30, 1406, 1139 - 1143, VF, , much , 3.904 g, maximum 22.9 mm, 180o, ( , France) mint, issue 1, Nov - Dec 275 A.D.; IMP C M CL TACITVS , , draped, and right; , Pax standing left, olive branch in right hand, transverse in left hand, no mark; ; $45.00 (€40.05)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
In 280, defeated the usurpers, at ( ), Bonosus at Agrippinensis ( ), and Julius Saturninus at , .RA46840. , , 2, 913, gVF, near full , 3.465 g, maximum 22.9 mm, 180o, 5th , Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 280 A.D.; IMP C PROBVS , , helmeted and left, spear in right over shoulder, on left arm; (the valor of Emperor ), emperor riding left, raising hand, captive at foot before horse, V below, XXI M(oneta) C(yzicus) in ; $45.00 (€40.05)
Thracian Tribes, c. 146 - 30 B.C., Imitative of Maroneia,
This is the only example of this with a blundered known to . We believe it much more likely a Thracian tribal imitative than a Maroneia mint error.BB54594. Bronze AE 18, cf. Maroneia 1566, p. 130, 80; 645; 805 (blundered ), VF, crude, 6.585 g, maximum 17.7 mm, 0o, Thracian tribal mint, c. 146 - 30 B.C.; wreathed of young Dionysos right; Dionysos standing left, grapes in right, in left, blundered downward on right (normally MAPΩNITΩN, appears as NEOΣ?); $45.00 (€40.05)
Kolophon, , c. 360 - 294 B.C.
After the death of Alexander the Great, Perdiccas expelled the Athenian settlers on Samos to Kolophon. controlled Kolophon until general Prepelaus sized the for in 302 B.C. destroyed Kolophon (and Lebedos) and forced the survivors to emigrate to . After his death in 281, Kolophon was reestablished, but it never fully recovered.GB59682. Bronze , 112, p. 70, 5, p. 38, 23 ff. var. (various magistrates), 149 ff. var. (same), aVF, 2.045 g, maximum 15.7 mm, 0o, Kolophon (near Degirmendere Fev, Turkey) mint, 360 - 294 B.C.; laureate of right; forepart of horse right, ΘPAΣYKΛHΣ (magistrate) left, KO below; $45.00 (€40.05)
, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D., Hadrianopolis,
The Romans, whose fondness for new gods increased with the influence of their foreign conquests, introduced the worship of within the walls of their city; not, however, without some opposition and resistance from the Senate. Through the influence of P. an was erected to in the Flaminii, and it quickly assumed the form of a temple which, after its Alexandrine prototype, was called the Serapeon. The principal Italian cities, never far behind , soon imitated her example, and it was not long before the worship of was extended from Italy by the different colonies sent from that country into .RP59690. Bronze AE 26, 3842 - 3843 var. ( ), p. 120, 27 var. (same), -, aVF, 9.782 g, maximum 26.4 mm, 0o, Hadrianopolis (Edirne, Turkey) mint, AVT K M ANT ΓOP∆IANOC AVΓ, laureate, draped, and right, from behind; A∆PIANOΠOΛEITΩN, standing half left, raising right hand, long transverse in left hand; variety; $45.00 (€40.05)
, 20 November 284 - 1 May 305 A.D.
In 292, the Roman general was proclaimed emperor in . For two years he ruled over , but in 294 his rebellion was crushed by Emperor .RS60443. , 435; , 2, 34; cf. 35 (1st ); 12658 var. ( ), EF, near full , , 2.795 g, maximum 22.4 mm, 0o, ( , France) mint, 292 A.D.; IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, , draped, and right; IOVI , seated left, on globe in right hand, long behind in left, uncertain letter in ; $45.00 (€40.05)
Pannonian , Syrmia Region, Kugelwange (Ball Cheek) , c. 2nd Century B.C.
Syrmia is a fertile region of the Pannonian Plain in Europe, between the Danube and Sava rivers. Today, it is divided between Serbia in the east and Croatia in the .CE68492. Bronze , cf. 471; 193/14; I S133; 199, pl. XXXII, 279; derived from the tetradrachms of , aVF, 8.947 g, maximum 24.5 mm, 180o, Syrmia mint, c. 2nd century B.C.; devolved laureate of Zeus right, hair in arcs on both sides of central point, broad laurel , ball cheek; devolved horse trotting left; $45.00 (€40.05)
Gallic Empire, , Summer 260 - Spring 269 A.D.
is Latin for "east." Literally, it means "rising" from orior, "rise." The use of the word for "rising" to refer to the east (where the sun rises) has analogs from many languages: compare the terms "Levant" (French levant "rising"), "Anatolia" (Greek anatole), "mizrahi" in Hebrew (from "zriha" meaning ), "sharq" in Arabic, and others. The Chinese pictograph for east is based on the sun rising behind a tree and "The Land of the Rising Sun" to refers to Japan. Also, many ancient temples, including the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, were built with their main entrances facing the East. To situate them in such a manner was to "orient" them in the proper direction. When something is facing the correct direction, it is said to have the proper "orientation."RS64641. , 316, 213d, 568, 2454, 49, 10964, 96 var. (no P), gVF, nice portrait, coppery surfaces with some , edge cracks, 2.603 g, maximum 20.0 mm, 180o, 1st , ( , France) mint, 267 - 268 A.D.; IMP C POSTVMVS , , draped, and right, from front; (the rising sun of the Emperor), Sol advancing left, , nude but for over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding , whip in left hand, P left; $45.00 (€40.05)
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