Taras, , Italy, c. 280 - 272 B.C.
Taras, the only Spartan colony, was founded in 706 B.C. The founders were Partheniae ("sons of virgins"), sons of unmarried Spartan women and Perioeci (free men, but not citizens of Sparta). These out-of-wedlock unions were permitted to increase the prospective number of soldiers (only the citizens could be soldiers) during the bloody Messenian wars. Later, however, when they were no longer needed, their citizenship was retroactively nullified and the sons were obliged to leave forever. Their leader, Phalanthos, consulted the oracle at and was told to make the harbor of Taranto their . They named the city Taras after the son of Poseidon, and of a local nymph, Satyrion. The depicts Taras being saved from a shipwreck by a sent to him by Poseidon. This symbol of the ancient Greek city is the symbol of modern Taranto today.GS85114. Silver nomos, 739 ff., 1006, 1106 ff., 1904 ff., 669 ff., 206, 211, EF, lovely old cabinet with hints of , , beautiful depiction of Phalanthos, some die wear, 6.537 g, maximum 22.8 mm, 45o, Taras (Taranto, Italy) mint, magistrates Zo…, Neyme…, & Poly…, c. 280-272 B.C.; nude youth on horseback right crowning horse with ; magistrates' names ZΩ above and NEY/MH in two lines below; Taras (or Phalanthos) astride left, nude, legs crossed, helmet in extended right hand, stars flanking before and behind, magistrates name ΠOΛY above right, TAPAΣ below; ex Goldberg auction 96, lot 1498; $800.00 (€712.00)
Roman Republic, Large Domed Ingot, Aes Formatum, 4th Century B.C.
Called aes formatum by , this very bronze currency was a precursor to the issues of but later than . Presumably, molten bronze-iron was poured into a shallow hole in the dirt. This left a disc-shaped metal mound with a flat . Broken examples are much more common than ones like this.AR11900. Cast bronze Aes Formatum, p. 4, pl. 2.7; 1.64 kg (3 lbs, 10 oz), maximum 14.6 cm, Italian mint, 4th century B.C.; convex ; flat ; the is in the photograph to indicate the size, not included; very ; $800.00 (€712.00)
Osco-Latin, Central Italy, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
Large and attractive example.
AS85409. Cast bronze Aes Formatum, cf. G. Fallai, , pl. 6, 2-2e; P28; -; molded from bipod shell; 115.566g, 56.5mm, VF, uncertain Osco-Latin mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; $600.00 (€534.00)
Italy, Bronze Axe , Aes Formatum, c. 5th - 4th Century B.C.
Bronze axe heads were used for exchange across Europe even before 1000 B.C. This bronze axe dates much later, c. 5 - 4th Century B.C. It was probably never used to cut , but was cast to serve as currency.AR11909. Bronze Aes Formatum, Aes formatum bronze axe, 320.3g, 14.6cm, ON RESERVE
, $518.00 (€461.02)
Tutere (Tudor), , Italy, 280 - 240 B.C.
Todi was founded by the ancient people of the Umbri, in the 8th - 7th century BC, with the name of Tutere. The name means "border," it being the city located on the frontier with the Etruscan dominions. It was conquered by the Romans in 217 BC. According to Silius Italicus, it had a double line of walls that stopped Hannibal himself after his at the Trasimeno. Christianity spread to Todi very early, through the efforts of St. Terentianus. St. Fortunatus became the saint of the city for his heroic defense of it during the siege. In Lombard times, Todi was of the Duchy of Spoleto.SH73969. Bronze , 37, CNAI 2, 75, 105; p. 39, 1, F, , pitted, , 3.364 g, maximum 18.9 mm, 180o, Tuder (Todi, Italy) mint, 280 - 240 B.C.; bearded of the satyr (Seilenos) right, wearing ivy ; Umbrian: TVTEDE (downward on left, TVT top outward, EDE top inward), standing left, wings spread; ; $440.00 (€391.60)
Roman Republic, Fragment of a Large Domed Ingot, Aes Formatum, 4th Century B.C.
Called aes formatum by , this very bronze currency was a precursor to the issues of but later than . Presumably, molten bronze-iron was poured into a shallow hole in the dirt. This left a disc-shaped metal mound with a flat . Broken examples like this one are much more common than ones.AR12017. Cast bronze Aes Formatum, p. 4, pl. 2.7, fragment, broken from a large domed ingot, 45.4 g, maximum 99.7 mm, Italian mint, 4th century B.C.; convex ; flat ; very ; $300.00 (€267.00)
Italy, Bronze Axe , Aes Formatum, c. 5th - 4th Century B.C.
Bronze axe heads were used for exchange across Europe even before 1000 B.C. This bronze axe dates much later, c. 5 - 4th Century B.C. It was never used to cut , but was cast to serve as currency.AS11911. Bronze Aes Formatum, Aes formatum bronze axe, 160.8g, 8.6cm, rough green , $280.00 (€249.20)
Herakleia, , Italy, 3rd Century B.C.
The sea god , the son of Poseidon and , lived with his parents in a golden palace on the bottom of the sea. Also called Tritons were a group of fish-tailed sea gods or daimones, the Satyrs of the sea. Some, called Ikhthyokentauroi (Sea-Centaurs), had the upper bodies of men and the lower bodies of Hippokampoi (fish-tailed horses).
Glaucus began his life as a mortal fisherman from Anthedon, . He discovered a magical herb which could bring fish back to life, and decided to try eating it. The herb made him immortal, but he grew fins and a fish tail, forcing him to dwell forever in the sea. Glaucus was initially upset by this side-effect, but Oceanus and Tethys received him well and he was quickly accepted among the deities of the sea, learning from them the art of prophecy.GB83465. Bronze AE 13, cf. 144 ff.; 116 ff.; p. 234, 66; 1141; 265; 1437, VF, , nice , green , 2.151 g, maximum 13.1 mm, 180o, Heraklea (in Matera Province, Italy) mint, c. 276 - 250 B.C.; of right, wearing a crested Corinthian helmet; marine deity ( or Glaukos?) right, spear in right hand, in left hand, HPAKΛEIΩN below; very ; $270.00 (€240.30)
Vibo (Hipponion), , Italy, c. 192 - 89 B.C.
Vibo was originally the Greek colony of Hipponion. It was founded, probably around the late 7th century B.C., by inhabitants of Locri, a city south of Vibo on the Sea. In 388 B.C., the city was taken by Dionysius the Elder, tyrant of , who deported the entire population. The population came back in 378 B.C., with the of the Carthaginians. In the following years Hipponion came under the dominion of the Bruttii. The town fell to and became a Roman colony in 194 B.C. with the name of Vibo . After a phase of prosperity during the late Republic and early Empire, the town was almost completely abandoned after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.GI76947. Bronze , 494; 1856; 1395; 510; p. 363, 31; 2266; -, VF, nice green , slightly off-center, bumps and marks, areas of light corrosion, 1.999 g, maximum 14.3 mm, 135o, Vibo mint, c. 192 - 89 B.C.; laureate of right, two pellets (mark of value) behind; , , two pellets (mark of value) right; $250.00 (€222.50)
, , Italy, c. 300 - 250 B.C.
or was an important city of Magna , on a plain of extraordinary fertility on the Gulf of Tarentum, between the river Bradanus and the Casuentus (modern Basento). It was distant about 20 km from and 40 from Tarentum. The ruins of are located in the frazione of Metaponto, in the comune of Bernalda, in the Province of Matera, Basilicata region, Italy.SH70576. Bronze AE 14, 62, 574, 1261, 534, 55, 420, 232, 1698, -, gVF, nice , , 3.426 g, maximum 14.3 mm, 270o, mint, c. 300 - 250 B.C.; of Demeter right, hair rolled and wreathed with barley, wearing pendant earring; (upwards on left), of barley with leaf right, fly (bee?) on right flying right above leaf; $240.00 (€213.60)
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