, , Italy, 320 - 300 B.C.
Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Bronze Age Greek settlements were established in the second millennium B.C. The city was refounded as in the sixth century B.C. and became an important hub of Magna , playing a key role in the merging of Greek culture into Roman society. Naples remained influential under Rome and more so after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, serving as the capital city of the Kingdom of Naples between 1282 and 1816. Thereafter, it became the capital of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861.SH79834. Silver nomos,
Tutere (Tudor), , Italy, 280 - 240 B.C.
Todi was founded by the ancient people of the Umbri, in the 8th - 7th century BC, with the name of Tutere. The name means "border," it being the city located on the frontier with the Etruscan dominions. It was conquered by the Romans in 217 BC. According to Silius Italicus, it had a double line of walls that stopped Hannibal himself after his at the Trasimeno. Christianity spread to Todi very early, through the efforts of St. Terentianus. St. Fortunatus became the saint of the city for his heroic defense of it during the siege. In Lombard times, Todi was of the Duchy of Spoleto.SH73969. Bronze
Herakleia, , Italy, 3rd Century B.C.
The sea god , the son of Poseidon and , lived with his parents in a golden palace on the bottom of the sea. Also called Tritons were a group of fish-tailed sea gods or daimones, the Satyrs of the sea. Some, called Ikhthyokentauroi (Sea-Centaurs), had the upper bodies of men and the lower bodies of Hippokampoi (fish-tailed horses).
Glaucus began his life as a mortal fisherman from Anthedon, . He discovered a magical herb which could bring fish back to life, and decided to try eating it. The herb made him immortal, but he grew fins and a fish tail, forcing him to dwell forever in the sea. Glaucus was initially upset by this side-effect, but Oceanus and Tethys received him well and he was quickly accepted among the deities of the sea, learning from them the art of prophecy.GB83465. Bronze AE 13, cf.
Vibo (Hipponion), , Italy, c. 192 - 89 B.C.
Vibo was originally the Greek colony of Hipponion. It was founded, probably around the late 7th century B.C., by inhabitants of Locri, a city south of Vibo on the Sea. In 388 B.C., the city was taken by Dionysius the Elder, tyrant of , who deported the entire population. The population came back in 378 B.C., with the of the Carthaginians. In the following years Hipponion came under the dominion of the Bruttii. The town fell to Rome and became a Roman colony in 194 B.C. with the name of Vibo . After a phase of prosperity during the late Republic and early Empire, the town was almost completely abandoned after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.GI76947. Bronze
, , Italy, c. 300 - 250 B.C.
or was an important city of Magna , on a plain of extraordinary fertility on the Gulf of Tarentum, between the river Bradanus and the Casuentus (modern Basento). It was distant about 20 km from and 40 from Tarentum. The ruins of are located in the frazione of Metaponto, in the comune of Bernalda, in the Province of Matera, Basilicata region, Italy.SH70576. Bronze AE 14,
Salapia, , Italy, c. 225 - 210 B.C.
Salapia defected to Hannibal in the Second Punic War and he made it his center of operations from c. 214 to 210 B.C. He had an affair with a local woman, branded a prostitute by Pliny. Salapia later made an about-face and returned to the side of Rome. Hannibal tried to reenter the city to take revenge, but failed.
During the , Salapia was burned and almost razed to the ground.
Salapia overlooked a lagoon, which, in the middle of the first century B.C silted-up and transformed into a malaria-generating swamp. With permission from the Roman Senate, the city was moved four miles away, enclosed by walls and connected by a channel to a sea .
SH72286. Bronze AE 22,
, , c. 300 - 200 B.C.
(Latin: ) was an important city of Magna , on a plain of extraordinary fertility on the Gulf of Tarentum, between the river Bradanus and the Casuentus. It was about 20 km from and 40 km from Tarentum.GB71325. Bronze AE 15,
Osco-Latin, Central Italy, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
CE84537. Cast bronze Aes Formatum, cf. G. Fallai,
, , Italy, c. 300 - 250 B.C.
A major feature of the festival of Karneios, celebrated in Sparta, Spartan colonies, and some cities of Magna , was the race of the staphylodromi. The staphylodromi were unmarried men, dedicated to the god for four years. During the festival they hunted a willing human victim who was adorned with woolen garlands and who had made special prayers for the city. If the victim was caught, it was a beneficial omen, but if he escaped, the city would not fare well.GI83471. Bronze AE 11,
Kingdom of Naples and , Philip IV of Spain, 31 March 1621 - 17 September 1665
Naples was ruled by the Crown of Aragon as of the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714.ME66312. Bronze 3 cavalli,
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