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Roman Imperial Quadrantes
Quadrantes, like quinarii, were issued only occasionally, perhaps exclusively for imperial distributions. Suetonius reported that, from the roof of the Basilica Julia "Caligula threw coins among the people." Perhaps the small coins below were personally thrown to the crowd by an Emperor at a similar event. The most common theme for the quadrans was the modius, a Roman grain container. This coin was probably redeemable for a modius of grain. The so-called 'anonymous quadrantes' date from the late 1st century to the mid-2nd century A.D., from the reign of Domitian to the reign of Antoninus Pius. The usual anonymous types are the head of a deity on the obverse with a reverse related to that deity. The most common anonymous type, for example, has the helmeted head of Minerva on the obverse and an owl on the reverse.
|In 77 or 78 A.D., Gnaeus Julius Agricola was made governor of Roman Britain, a post he occupied until 84. In his first year, Agricola subdued the Ordovices in Wales and pursued the remnants of the tribe to Anglesey, the holy island of the Druids. According to Tacitus, he exterminated the whole tribe. The Ordovices do completely disappear from the historical record, but considering the mountainous terrain, it is unlikely killed the entire population. Another tribe, the Silures, was either also militarily defeated or simply agreed to terms. Tacitus wrote of the Silures: non atrocitate, non clementia mutabatur - the tribe "was changed neither by cruelty nor by clemency." A Roman squadron, sent by Agricola, explored the north of Scotland for the first time, discovering the Orkney and Shetland Islands.|