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This coin may have been struck to appeal to Pax to deliver peace at the time the First Jewish Revolt was coming to its end. On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.SH87932. Gold aureus, RIC II-1 28, BnF I 17, BMCRE II 23, Hunter I 13, Calico I 607, Cohen I -, SRCV I -, Choice aVF, well centered, traces of luster in recesses, weight 6.944 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. Jan - Jun 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESARVESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverseCOS ITERTR POT, Pax seated left, extending olive branch in right hand, winged caduceus in left hand; $2520.00 (€2142.00)
Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.
Following tradition, when young Nero was elevated to princeps juventutis (prince of youth) in 51 A.D., the equestrian order (Roman knights) gave him a silver buckler (a small round shield) and lances. Coins depicting these traditional gifts were issued for Caius and Lucius, when they were designated princeps juventutis in the time of Augustus. Aurei and denarii with the same types were struck for Nero at Rome. Due to the rarity of the type and the lack of S C on the reverse, it was long believed this type was funded by the knights for distribution as gifts to attendees at the event where Nero was given his buckler and lances. In SNR 63 (1984), von Kaenel re-attributed this type to a Thracian mint. A few dozen examples are know and some, according to RPC I, were found in Thrace.RB88176. Orichalcumsestertius, von Kaenel Thrakien, type A (unlisted dies); RIC IClaudius 108 (R4); BMCRE p. 195 note, pl. 37, 4; BnF IIClaudius 288; Cohen I 99; see RPC I p. 311, aVF, dark brown near black patina, minor roughness, weight 26.001 g, maximum diameter 33.8 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain Balkan or Thracian mint, as caesar, 51 - 54 A.D.; obverse NERONI CLAVDIO DRVSO GERMANICO COS DESIG, bare headed and draped bust right; reverse EQVESTER / OR-DO / PRINCIPI / IVVENT in four lines on a buckler (small round shield), lance vertical behind; ex CNG e-sale 424 (11 Jul 2018), lot 434; ex CNG e-sale 174 (10 Oct 2007), lot 204; ex CNG auction 67 (22 Sep 2004), lot 1316; ex Michael Weller Collection; very rare; $1620.00 (€1377.00)
Trebonianus Gallus, June or July 251 - July or August 253 A.D., Alexandria Troas, Troas
The representation of the decurions of Alexandria depicted on the reverse of this type is unique within the Roman provincial series. The decurions were members of municipal senates responsible for procuring funds for new public works, festivities and games, as well as for welfare networks. Their fiscal responsibilities also extended to the collecting of imperial taxes, for which they were expected to cover any shortfalls.RP87204. Bronze AE 22, RPC IX 432 (12 spec.); Bellinger A409; SNG Çanakkale 376; BMC Troas p. 27, 145; SNG Cop -; SNGvA -, aVF, dark green patina, reverse slightly off center, tiny encrustations, some legend weak, edge cracks, weight 4.586 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 180o, Alexandria Troas (Eski Stambul, Turkey) mint, Jun/Jul 251 - Jul/Aug 253 A.D.; obverseIMP CVIBI TRIBO GALLVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassedbust right; reverse The curia decurionum of Alexandria in session: nine men wearing togas seated in a semicircle, two outer men seated on curule chairs, two in center holding short staffs, AVG above, two steps below, ALEXAND on upper step, decorative pattern on lower step, TROADA in exergue; ex Roma Numismatics, e-sale 40 (28 Oct 2017), lot 429; very rare; $1300.00 (€1105.00)
Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.
Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honorAugustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.SH82657. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC I 330, Cohen I 271, BnF I 417, Mac Dowall WCN 163, Hunter I 100, SRCV I -, BMCRE I -, gVF, excellent portrait, finestyle, dark green and brown patina, some corrosion, gently smoothed, weight 24.425 g, maximum diameter 34.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 66 A.D.; obverse IMP NEROCLAVDCAESAR AVG GER P M TR P P P, laureate head left with light beard; reverseRoma seated left on cuirass, one round and one oblong shield behind, wearing crested helmet, right foot drawn back and resting on helmet, Victory offering wreath in Roma's extended right hand, her left hand rests on parazonium, ROMA in exergue, S - C (senatus consulto) at sides; Numismatica Ars Classica, auction 94 (6 Oct 2016), lot 127; ex Classical Numismatic Group 783132 ($1750); $1100.00 (€935.00)
Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.
Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue; a man or woman with pietas respected his or her responsibilities to the gods, family, other people and entities (such as the state), and understood his or her place in society with respect to others.RB82751. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC II 771(f), BMCRE III 1534, Cohen II 1035, SRCV II 3616 var. (laureate head), Hunter II 547 (draped, head bare), VF, well centered on a tight flan, dark green patina, some light corrosion, weight 25.535 g, maximum diameter 31.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 134 - 138 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate and draped bust right, from behind; reversePIETAS AVG (piety of the Emperor), Pietas standing slightly left, head left, praying with hands upraised, altar to left; stork to right, S - C (senatus consulto) across fields; $370.00 (€314.50)
Julia Domna, Augusta, 194 - 8 April 217 A.D.
Although many coin references classify Fecunditas as a personification of fertility rather than as an actual deity, Fecunditas was recognized as a Roman divinity by Nero, who erected a statue to her. Tacitus notes that upon the birth of Claudia Neronis, the senate decreed the construction of a temple of Fertility to be built at Antium. Fecunditas is always portrayed as a female figure holding a child, or children and often a scepter, cornucopia, palm branch or caduceus. Sometimes the children are depicted standing at her feet. Coins portraying her usually advertise the fertility of the imperial family.RS89455. Silver denarius, RIC IV S534 (S); RSC III 42; BMCRE V p. 27, W46; SRCV II 6580; Hunter III -, VF/F, excellent portrait, toned, flaw on reverse, small edge cracks, weight 2.934 g, maximum diameter 17.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 195 - 196 A.D.; obverse IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust right, hair in horizontal ridges, large chignon at back of head; reverseFECVNDITAS (fertility), Fecunditas seated right on throne, holding child in her arms, another child at her feet on right, standing left; very rare; $300.00 (€255.00)
Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.
The reverselegend translates, "The gates of Janus' temple are closed because peace of the Roman people is set on both land and sea." On the rare occasions when Rome was not at war the doors of the 'Twin Janus' were ceremonially closed, an event Nero commemorated extensively on the coinage of 65 - 67 A.D. -- Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. 1 by David R. SearSH89524. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC I 438, BMCRE I 319, BnF I 73, Mac Dowall WCN 419, Cohen I 146, SRCV I 1958, Hunter I -, F/aF, brown fields with brassy high points, obverse slightly off center, beveled obverse edge (typical for this issue), weight 20.807 g, maximum diameter 35.3 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 65 A.D.; obverseNEROCLAVDCAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head right, globe at the point of the bust; reverse PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, view of the Temple of Janus from the front left corner, temple front on the right with garland over closed doors within arch, the left side of the temple to the left with long latticed window, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; $300.00 (€255.00)
Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.
The pileus liberatis was a soft felt cap worn by liberated slaves of Troy and Asia Minor. In late Republican Rome, the pileus was symbolically given to slaves upon manumission, granting them not only their personal liberty, but also freedom as citizens with the right to vote (if male). Following the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 B.C., Brutus and his co-conspirators used the pileus to signify the end of Caesar's dictatorship and a return to a Republican system of government. The pileus was adopted as a popular symbol of freedom during the French Revolution and was also depicted on some early U.S. coins.RB89529. Bronze dupondius, RIC I 137 (R), BnF III 263 var. (rev.legend from lower left), SRCV I 136 var. (same), Cohen I 163 var. (same), BMCRE I -, aF, well centered, rough from corrosion, edge split, weight 11.454 g, maximum diameter 30.1 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. Dec 68 - 15 Jan 69 A.D; obverse SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P P P (or similar), laureate head right, globe at point of bust; reverseLIBERTAS PVBLICA (freedom of the people, clockwise, from upper right), Liberty standing half left, pileus in right hand, rod in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) across fields; from the Errett Bishop Collection; very rare; $280.00 (€238.00)
Geta, 209 - c. 26 December 211 A.D.
Between 209 and their father's death in February 211, both brothers were shown as equally mature young men with a short full beard. Both sons were presented as equally suitable heirs to the throne, showing thus more "depth" to the dynasty. Between the death of Septimius Severus and the assassination of Geta, Caracalla's portraits did not change, while Geta was depicted with a long beard with hanging hairs much like his father, a strong indication of Geta's efforts to be seen as the "true" successor of his father.RS86671. Silver denarius, RIC IV 88, RSC III 68, BMCRE V 65, SRCV II -, Choice EF, nearly as struck except for light toning, fantastic portrait, luster in recesses, perfect centering on a broad flan, some legend just a little weak, tiny edge cracks, weight 3.250 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 210 - 212 A.D.; obverse P SEPT GETAPIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right; reverseLIBERALITAS AVG V (the 5th liberality [distribution of gifts to the people] by the Emperor), Liberalitas standing half-left, coin counting board in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; $270.00 (€229.50)
Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.; EQVITI Series III of Ticinum - * I VIXXI
Ticinum mint EQVITI series III - click "EQVITI" to read the NumisWiki article, "Coins of Probus with Coded Markings of EQVITI Embedded in the mint mark." The letter "I" in the reversefield is the sixth letter of the codewordEQVITI. The letter "VI" in the exergue indicates this coin was struck by the sixth officina (mint workshop). The letters of the word EQVITI are coded in the mint marks of coins from all the officinae of the mint, with the specific letters of the codeword assigned to each officina in order corresponding with their officina numbers. This codeword probably refers to cavalry. It may be AEQVITI truncated because there were only six officinae in operation. RA87600. Billonantoninianus, Hunter IV 170; RIC V-2 525; Cohen VI 612, Pink p. 67, em. 10; SRCV III 12033, Choice aMS, nearly as struck, lustrous full silvering, excellent centering, bold strike, areas of light toning, weight 3.639 g, maximum diameter 24.5 mm, die axis 0o, 6th officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 282 A.D.; obverseVIRTVS PROBI AVG (the valor of Emperor Probus), radiatebust left in consular robe, eagle-tipped scepter in right; reverseSECVRIT PERP (everlasting security), Securitas standing left raising right hand to head, resting left elbow on column, star left, I right, VIXXI in exergue; $260.00 (€221.00)
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