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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Greek Coins ▸ Hellenistic Monarchies ▸ Kingdom of ChalkisView Options:  |  |  | 

Kingdom of Chalkis

The Kingdom of Chalkis in Coele Syria was established during the collapse of the Seleukid Empire (c. 85 B.C.) by Ptolemaios son of Mennaios (also called Ptolemy I), an Ituraean Arab dynast. In 64 B.C., Ptolemaios bribed Pompey the Great to forego annexing his kingdom and was allowed to rule as Tetrarch. In 40 B.C., Ptolemaios was succeeded by his son Lysanias, who foolishly supported Mattathias Antigonos against Herod the Great and the Romans, resulting in his execution in 36 B.C. Mark Antony gave the kingdom to Cleopatra VII. She leased the kingdom to Zenodoros, who may have been a son of Lysanias. After Cleopatra's suicide in 30 B.C., Augustus allowed Zenodoros to rule as Tetrarch. In 23 B.C., after complaints from Chalkis' neighbors, Augustus deposed Zenodoros and gave his lands to Herod the Great. After Herod's death, Chalkis appears to have been made part of the Roman province of Syria, but may have been ruled by Herodian tetrarchs. In 37 A.D., Caligula allowed Herod of Chalcis to rule with the title basileus (king). He was succeeded by Herod Agrippa II in 48 A.D., who was in turn succeeded by Aristobulus of Chalcis in 53 A.D. After the death of Aristobulus of Chalcus in 92 A.D., Chalkis became part of the Roman province of Syria.


Tetrarchy of Chalkis, Coele Syria, Lysanias, 40 - 36 B.C.

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Lysanias is called Tetrarch of Abila by Josephus. Lysanias' father Ptolemaios was married to Alexandra, Mattathias Antigonus' sister. Lysanias offered the Parthian satrap Barzapharnes a thousand talents and 500 women to depose Hyrcanus and put his uncle (or step-uncle) Antigonus on the throne of Judaea (Josephus B.J. 1.248). When Lysanias continued to support Antigonus against the Roman nominee Herod the Great, Mark Antony had him executed, and gave his territory to Cleopatra VII.
GB90942. Bronze AE 19, Herman 11.g, RPC I 4769, HGC 9 145 corr., Lindgren III 1243, BMC Galatia -, VF, weight 3.505 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 0o, Chalkis sub Libano mint, c. 40 B.C.; obverse veiled female bust right, no inscription; reverse double cornucopia, flanked by four ligatures ΛYCA, TETP, APX, IΦ (Lysanias tetrarch and high priest); very rare; $270.00 (240.30)


Tetrarchy of Chalkis, Coele Syria, Lysanias, 40 - 36 B.C.

Click for a larger photo
Lysanias is called Tetrarch of Abila by Josephus. Lysanias' father Ptolemaios was married to Alexandra, one of the sisters of Mattathias Antigonus. Lysanias offered the Parthian satrap Barzapharnes a thousand talents and 500 women to depose Hyrcanus and put his uncle (or step-uncle) Antigonus on the throne of Judaea (Josephus B.J. 1.248). When Lysanias continued to support Antigonus against the Roman nominee Herod the Great, Mark Antony had him executed, and gave his territory to Cleopatra VII.
GB67917. Bronze AE 21, Herman 11.g, RPC I 4769, HGC 9 145 corr., Lindgren III 1243, BMC Galatia -, VF, weight 5.480 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 0o, Chalkis sub Libano mint, c. 40 B.C.; obverse veiled female bust right, no inscription; reverse double cornucopia, flanked by four ligatures ΛYCA, TETP, APX, IΦ (Lysanias tetrarch and high priest); very rare; $170.00 (151.30)


Tetrarchy of Chalkis, Coele Syria, Ptolemaios, 85 - 40 B.C., Cleopatra Countermark

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Pompey destroyed Ptolemaios strongholds in the Lebanon and doubtless took away from him the Hellenistic cities, as he did in Judaea. When Aristobulus II was murdered by Pompey's party in Judea (49 B.C.), his sons and daughters found protection with Ptolemaios (Ant. xiv. 7, 4; B. J. i. 9, 2). It may be that the national Jewish party at that time depended for support on the Itureans in Chalcis, and perhaps the following statement has reference to that fact: "On the 17th of Adar danger threatened the rest of the Soferim in the city of Chalcis, and it was salvation for Israel" (Meg. Ta'an. xii.).
GB16532. Bronze AE 22, HGC 9 1441; Herman 7; BMC Galatia p. 279, 2; SGCV II 5896 var.; Lindgren 2134A, gVF, countermark F, weight 9.606 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 90o, Chalkis sub Libano mint, 85 - 40 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; countermark: bust right in oval punch; reverse ΠTOΛEMAIOY / TETPAPΞOY / AXP (AX ligate), eagle flying right, monogram above tail; SOLD







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REFERENCES

Burnett, A., M. Amandry and P.P. Ripolls. Roman Provincial Coinage I: From the death of Caesar to the death of Vitellius (44 BC-AD 69). (1992 and supplement).
Herman, D. "The Coins of the Ituraeans" in INR 1 (2006), pp. 51 - 72.
Hoover, O. D. Handbook of Syrian Coins, Royal and Civic Issues, Fourth to First Centuries BC, HGC Vol. 9. (Lancaster, PA, 2009).
Lindgren, H & F. Kovacs. Ancient Bronze Coinage of Asia Minor and the Levant. (San Mateo, 1985).
Lindgren, H. Lindgren III: Ancient Greek Bronze Coins from the Lindgren Collection. (1993).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 2, Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Wroth, W. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Syria. (London, 1899).

Catalog current as of Tuesday, April 25, 2017.
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Kingdom of Chalkis